::Society for Global Studies and Research::
International Journal of
Trade and Commerce-IIARTC
ISSN: 2277-5811(Print), 2278-9065(Online)

  • Editorial Board
  • Chief Editor Say
  • Aims & Objectives
  • Editorial Criteria
  • Scope
  • Essential Readings
International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC
Chief Editor:
ISSN: 2277-5811(Print), 2278-9065(Online)


The INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ADVANCE RESEARCH IN TRADE & COMMERCE (IIARTC), FACULTY OF COMMERCE & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, MEERUT COLLEGE, MEERUT, U.P. INDIA, is an autonomous institute of advance research on humanities and social science specially on social, economic, commercial, financial, political and business & trade issues relating at national and global level. IIARTC is non-profitable membership based organization. It is governed by an Executive Council. IIARTC reserves all rights to increase/decrease no. of membership and executive body. All powers are vested on General Secretary. The vision of IIARTC is to publish the original research in all branches of Commerce, Business Management and other cognate branches of sufficient relevance. The journal of IIARTC publishes three types of articles. i.e. Review/Strategy/Case Study (exclusively by invitation from the personalities of eminence), Research paper and Research Note. IIARTC aspires to attract leading thinkers on Social Science, Scholars, Academicians and Media Persons to deliberate on all facts of Economic, Social, Political, Financial, Commercial, Business & Trade Issues relating at national and International level. IIARTC organizes seminars and conferences, workshops and guest lectures and undertakes research projects on Economic, Social, Political, Financial, Commercial, Business & Trade Issues relating at national and International level. IIARTC is to act as National Forum for integrated development of Education in Trade, Commerce and Management in India. IIARTC is to function as a centre for exchange of ideas among scholars at different universities and institutions in to Social Science. IIARTC is to hold an annual congress and publish proceedings, journals, Monographs & Books, etc. IIARTC is also to collaborate with National and International Issues relating to social Science. Since June, 2010, its inception IIARTC has evolved its activities and research. Publication of the IIARTC Research Journal entitled “INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRADE & COMMERCE-IIARTC”- being a Refereed Research Journal of Humanities & Social Science commences in June, 2012.

Editorial Board

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Chief Patron

Sri Vikram Chandra Goel,                                                                                                                                                                                                          IPS(Retd.), Ex. Director General of Police, Vice Chancellor, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India

Dr. N. P. Singh
Principal, Meerut College, Meerut, U.P. India.

Chief Editor

Dr. S. K. S. Yadav
Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Dy. Chief Editor

1. Dr. Chalam V. Goriparthi,
Professor of Finance, Department of Commerce & Business Administration, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, India.
2. Dr.Dharmendra Yadav,
Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Vardhaman College, Bijnore, U.P., M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Barelly, U.P. India.


Mr. Abbas J. Ali , Professor and Director School of International Management, Eberly College of Business, IUP.

Ms. Juliette Overland, The University of Sydney Business School, Sydney, Australia.

Prof. Nawab Ali Khan, Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkhraj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Professor Kamal Nayan Agarwal, Dept. of Information Systems and Decision Sciences, School of Business, Howard University, Washington-DC 20059.

Mr. Ashok Mishra, Senior Research Scientist, BASF,Singapore.

Ms. Vassiliki Bamiatzi, Leeds University Business School, United Kinghdom. 

Ngboawaji Daniel Nte PhD, Regional Representative, American Heritage University of Southern, California, 255 North D Street San Bernardino, CA 92401,

 Dr. Nasser S. Al-kahtani, Dean, College of Business Administration, Al-Kharj Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.       

Md. Zahir Uddin Arif, Senior Vice President, Academic Accreditation, International Institute of Marketing Professionals (IIMP). · Toronto, Ontario., 24-499 Ray Lawson Blvd., P.O. Box 185 • Brampton • Ontario L6Y 4E6 • Canada, Research fellow of IIARTC, Meerut, U.P. India,

Sri Akhilesh Yadav, Ex Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Honrable Justice Ravindra Singh, Judge, Allahabad High Court, Allahabad, India.

Honrable Justice Ram Surat Singh, Former Judge, Allahabad High Court And Ex- Chairman of State OBC Commission, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Prof. Chu V. Nguyen, Ph.D. , University of Houston- Downtown, Houston, Texas, USA.        

Professor R D Sharma, Dean Academic Affairs, And Dean Business Studies, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, India, Ex-Visiting Fulbright Professor of Business Administration URI, Kingston (USA).

Mr. Amit Ghosh, Senior IAS, i.g. Registration, Lucknow U.P. India.

Mr. O. P. Singh, IPS, Adg Special Enquiry Lucknow, U.P. India

Dr. D. R. Dandapat, Professor, Department of Commerce, University of Calcutta, Secretary, IAA Research Foundation, India.

Prof. Vijaya Laxmi Chari Seth, Damoderdas School of Commerce, Gujarat University, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, India.

Mr. Rajesh Yadav, Vice Chairman, Meerut Development Authority, Meerut, U.P., India

Mr. Ram Das Rathore, Advocate, Supreme Court of India.

Prof. Y. P. Singh,( retd.) Commerce Department, Delhi School of Economics, D. U., Delhi, India.

Prof. Ramesh Chandra Mishra, Director, Institute of Professional Studies, Nainital, India.

Dr. S. P. Gupta, Ex-dean, Faculty of Commerce, M. J. H. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, India.

Dr. V. M. Saxena, Ex-hod Commerce Deptt, D. N. College & hony. Secretary, Management Committee, CPE, Meerut, India.

Dr. Neetu Andotra, Professor & Hod, Department of Commerce, University of Jammu, Jammu, India.

Prof. P. K. Yadav HOD, Department of Business Adminiastration, Faculty of Management, MJH, Rohilkhand University Bareilly, India.

Dr. Manas Pandey, Dean Faculty of Management Studies, BBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India.

Dr. S. N. Mittal, HOD, Ex-dean, Ex-convenor of R.D.C., Faculty of Commerce,CCS University, Meerut, India.

Dr. A. B. Lal, HOD, Ex-dean, Ex-convenor of R.D.C., Faculty of Commerce,CCS University, Meerut, India.

Dr. P. K. Singh, Associate Professor & Head  of Commerce & Business Organisation, Department of Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut, India.

Dr. D. R. Yadav, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut, India.

Dr. A. P. Singh, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut, India.

Dr. Govind Ram Gupta, Principal, Vardhaman [P.G.] College, Bijnor, India.

Dr. Maukam Singh Yadav, Principal, K.K. P G College, Etawah, U.P. India.

Dr. Ajab Singh, Principal, National P.G. College, Bhogaon, Distt. Mainpuri, India.

Prof M.Mustafa Khan, Department of Commerce, Jamia Millia Islamia University, Delhi.India

Dr. CHALAM V. GORIPARTHI, Professor of Finance, Department of Commerce & Business Administration, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar - 522 510. (A.P.) India. 

Dr. Nasser s. Al-kahtani, Dean, College of Business Administration, Al-kharj Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. S. K. Gupta, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut, India.
Dr. Rakesh Kumar, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut, India.
Dr. Subhash Chand, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Meerut College, Meerut, India.
Dr. Ashok Kumar, Head of Mathematics Department, Meerut College, Meerut, India.

Dr. Sanjay Kumar, Assistant Professor Department of Defence Study, Meerut College, Meerut & Professorial Fellow India Studies Centre, Bankok, Thailand.   

Dr. M. P. Verma, Assistant Professor, Law Department, Meerut College, Meerut, India

Dr. Rajiv Singh, Assistant Professor Department of Geography, Meerut College, Meerut, India.

Dr. Rakesh Kumar Yadav, Associate Professor & Head, Deptt. of Business Administration, School of Business Management, IFTM University, Moradabad, U.P.

Dr. K. Sivachithappa, Chairman, BOE in Economics Department, Principal Investigator UGC Major Research Project, Department of Economics, University of Mysore PG Centre, Tubinakere, Mandya,  INDIA.

Dr. Prakash Chand Gopalan, Assistt. Profesor,Department of Political Science, K.N. Govt. College, Gyanpur, District Badhoi, U.P., India

Dr. Vipin Negi, Assist. Professor, Department of Commerce, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, (University of Delhi) Delhi, India.

Dr.B.Nimalathasan,Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Studies & Commerce, University of Jaffna, Shri Lanka

Dr. Kusum Yadav, Asstt. Professor, Information, System Department, College of Engineering & Science, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, 151 Alkharaj 11942, Kingdom of sauidi Arabia.

Mrs. Deepa Yadav, L.L.M. NET (UGC), Research Scholar, Department of Law, Meerut College, Meerut, U.P. India


Dr. Anil Yadav,Deptt of Commerce D.D.U.University, Gorakhpur, India.
Dr. M. K. Siras, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut, India.
Dr. Ijrail Miya, Head of Psychology Department, Meerut College, Meerut, India.
Mr. Dharmendra Yadav, M.Sc. (Mathematics), M.Phil., NET-JRF, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, Delhi University, Delhi, India.
Dr. Mridula Sharma, Associate Professor, Psychology Deptt., Meerut College, Meerut, India.
Mr. Ram Yagya Maurya, Associate Professor, Hindi Department of Hindi, Meerut College, Meerut, India.
Mr. Som Nath Kisan Khatal, Dept. of Marathi, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.
Dr. H.P. Malonia, Associate Professor, S.R.K.(P.G.) College, Firozabad, Agra University, Agra, India.

Ms. Renu Vij,  (MBA), (M.F.C.), (M.Com.), (M.Phil.) Pursuing Ph.D. in H.R. Working at University in Himanchal Pradesh., India

Deepa Chaterjee, B.Sc.(St. Thomas College, Raipur),  MBA (HR and Advertising Communications), NIT, Bhopal, M. Phil (Business Management) from Padmshree Dr. D.Y.Patil University, Navi Mumbai,  Working with AICAR B-School, Neral as Assistant Professor, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dr.Priyanka Saroha, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, College of Vocational Education , Delhi University, Delhi                                  Dr. A. Kotishwar, Associate Professor & HOD, Department of Master of Business Administration, CMR College of Engineering and Technology (Affiliated to JNTU), Medchal Road, Kadlakoya (v) Hyderabad, Telangana 


I feel immense pleasure in presenting the first issue of International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC. This is a Journal of Social Science and Humanities. The basic aim of this Journal is to both sharpen the intellectual field of research and to present fruitful and relevant material of common interest and concern.

It provides a basic platform to the new, bonafide and genuine researches in the field of Commerce, Economics, Law, Management and Trade. Research Papers, Articles, Case-studies, Discussions, Opinions, Commentary, Book Reviews and Biographies of the legends of bonafide and genuine nature are given place in the journal. It was found that the researchers in the fields were not having a suitable platform to put forward their thoughts and interact with experts in the relative fields. This Journal gives them opportunities to communicate their views to a broad listeners' group. It also throws the light on the contemporary issues of global interests.

We invite theoretical and applied research papers concerning areas including global, regional, business/trade, commerce, primary and secondary market issues, business ethics, corporate governance, social aspects and international trade, H.R.M.& Personnel Management, Marketing, Finance, Accounting Aspects, ISO, Quality Management, Time Management, etc.. We aspire for your valuable comments and suggestions in order to improve the journal. We are hopeful that our humble efforts and your kind cooperation will make this journal successful endeavor.

We express our sincere gratitude to all the eminent authors who have sent their research papers or given their consent to join in the advisory board or penal of referee or made their valuable contribution to the Journal in any respect.

We hope International Journal of Trade & Commerce-IIARTC will receive its due response. We again invite your research paper, book review, contribution and expression of all shade of opinions.


Aim and Objectives of Journals

International Journal of Trade & Commerce –IIARTC is having the following aims & objectives:

1. The aim of the International Journal of Trade & Commerce -IIARTC is to promote the understanding of managers and organizations within and across nations. It is an interdisciplinary journal directed towards academics, policy makers and practitioners in business and non-profit organizations.

2. The journal aims to provide a forum to widen and deepen discussion about all areas of business, trade, commerce and management as well as being readable, accessible and easy to use.

3. IJTC is aimed to publish original papers and case studies. The aim is to offer an independent, non-partisan perspective on the issues of economics and trade.

Editorial Criteria

The International Journal of Trade & Commerce -IIARTC is having the following editorial criteria:

The International Journal of Trade & Commerce -IIARTC is a blind-refereed bi-anuual journal that publishes empirical, conceptual and review papers of exceptional quality that contribute to and enrich management thinking and practices. Emphasis is given to papers that address controversial topics and which have a sound theoretical base and/or practical applications. All papers submitted should be original contributions and not under consideration for publication elsewhere.


We value the work done by peer reviewers in the academic community, who provide an essential service to the process of publication excellence, driving research within their fields of expertise.

The peer review process is essential to the development of research across all subject areas. Authors and researchers benefit from having their paper improved and their knowledge developed. Reviewers also benefit from being able to read cutting edge research prior to publication and before anyone else in the field. They also have the satisfaction of knowing that they are contributing directly to the development of their chosen field.

We hope that the following pages will provide you with information and resources to help you when you are taking part in this essential process.

















Looking to the past for editorial wisdom.

Here is the list:
1When in doubt, let a manuscript go back.
2Always remember that the fastidious element in the IJTC-IIARTC audience is its permanent and valuable core.

3.Don't over-edit. You will often estrange an author by too elaborate a revision, and furthermore, take away from the magazine the variety of style that keeps it fresh.

4Avoid mistakes of fact. If a paper is statistical, question the author closely.

5The IJTC-IIARTChas always been recognized as belonging to the Liberal wing. Be liberal, but be radical only as a challenge to be answered.

6Be careful about expenses. Calculate the cost of each number. Remember that our margin is always narrow.

7A sound editor never has a three-months' full supply in his cupboard. When you over-buy, you narrow your future choice.

8Follow the news. Remember that timeliness means being on time, not before the time. Interesting papers on conscience, personal religion, theory of living, are always precious.The IJTC-IIARTChas three dimensions -- breadth of interest, height of interest, depth of interest. Individual personal philosophy always adds to the depth.

9Keep all suggestions in the Black Book, so that they can be followed up. Humor is precious and correspondingly hard to find. Most humor that reaches us is merely jocularity, and it is well to be jocular only when really funny.

10Quick decisions -- except in poetry. Collect groups of verse and make a selection after several readings.

What do you think? Does it contain sage advice that is still relevant today ? It seems to have servedThe IJTC-IIARTC well. However, a lot of things have changed since the mid-1900s. In this day of the multimedia, multichannel JOURNAL, should we be following a different set of rules ?

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statemen

PUBLISHER’s ethic statements are based on the Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Duties of Editors

Publication decisions

The editor of SER is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Fair play

An editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.


The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author.

Duties of Reviewers

Contribution to Editorial Decisions

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.


Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.


Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

Duties of Authors

Reporting standards

Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

Data Access and Retention

Authors are asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

Authors should ensure that submitted work is original and has not been published elsewhere in any language, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

Applicable copyright laws and conventions should be followed. Copyright material (e.g. tables, figures or extensive quotations) should be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement.

Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.

The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

Fundamental errors in published works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

Authors’ guidelines


Types of paper

Contributions falling into the following categories will be considered for publication: Original research papers, (mini) reviews, technical notes]. Please ensure that you select the appropriate article type from the list of options when making your submission. Authors contributing to special issues should ensure that they select the special issue article type from this list.

Submission Checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files(where applicable)
Supplemental files(where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit ourSupport Center.

Before You Begin

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages onEthics in publishingandEthical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work.More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue:Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confi rmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author,who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue:Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you canshare your researchpublished in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open Access

Every peer-reviewed research article appearing in this journal will be published open access. This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication.

We offer modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use theEnglish Language Editing serviceavailable from Elsevier's WebShop.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.


Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final.More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Formatting requirements
The manuscript should contain the essential elements in sequence: title page (including title, names and affiliations of the authors, keywords), abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion, conclusions, references, tables and figures with captions. Tables and figures should be placed at the bottom of the manuscript file.

The text should be double-spaced and use Times New Roman, 12-point font size. Each paragraph should be indented. Insert consecutive line numbers and all pages should be numbered at the bottom of each page.

Paper length
Technical notes should not exceed 4000 words. Research papers should not exceed 6000 words. Review papers should not exceed 9000 words.

Word counts include text, references, tables and figures. Each table or figure should be considered equivalent to 300 words. The number of tables and/or figures should not exceed a total amount of eight.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title.Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations.Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) in this order: city name, postal code, and the country name) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.
Corresponding author.Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address.If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided. but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Define abbreviations when they first appear, and there is no need to use abbreviations if they are no longer used in the manuscript. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

The proper use of lowercase and uppercase is required, e.g., kg (103g), MW (106Watt), k (rate constants) and K (equilibrium constants). The format should be in mg L-1s-1(not mg/L-s) with a space in between each individual unit. Always provide a blank space before the unit, e.g., 0.5 M NaCl solution, 20 g of wet sludge, etc.

Use min for minutes, h for hours, d for days, yr for years.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In separate equations, all formulae should be typed in a stack format. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text) using Arabic numerals in round brackets. In the text, equations should be referred to as Eq. (1) or Eqs. (2) and (3), except when starting a sentence.


Do not use footnotes in the text.

Table footnotes
Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.


Electronic Artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
• Preferred fonts in illustrations: Times New Roman (or Times), Arial, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions under illustrations.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
A detailedguide on electronic artworkis available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites).Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (noton the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables should be placed on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote and Reference Manager. Using plug-ins to word processing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

Reference style
Text:Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List:Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
[4] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13.03.03].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] [5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see alsoSamples of Formatted References).

Journal abbreviation source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to theCaltech Library.

After Acceptance

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need todownload the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at theAdobe site.

If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to IJTC-IIARTC in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that IJTC-IIARTC may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

IJTC fosters discussion on the various interrelationships between economic growth at national and international levels and international trade. The journal will emphasise the implications that trade policy exerts on economic growth and vice versa, as well the role of national governments, international organisations and the business community on related issues of worldwide concern.


Marketing Finance Human Resource Management Commerce
Financial Services CRM, Six Sigma E-Commerce Tax
Public Administration Marketing Research Retailing Sports Sciences
Strategic Management Policy Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure Organizational Behavior & Theory International Marketing
International Finance International HRM Purchasing/Materials Management Transportation/Physical Distribution
Production/Operations Advertising & Sales Promotion Management Financial Institutions & Markets Behavioral Economics
Security Analysis & Portfolio Management Corporate Finance Banking & Insurance Macro Economics
Micro Economics Regional Economics Monetary Policy Case Study in Finance, Marketing, IT,e-COMMERCE, HRM
Entrepreneurship International trade Economic growth Financing trade deficit

Some Important Topics of interest include but are not limited to:
• The role of international economic organisations in the global economy.
• International economic issues.
• Interaction between global markets and trade.
• Implications of globalisation on markets and trade.
• WTO and its policies.
• FDI and the international economics.
• The role of IT in the process of globalisation.
• The importance of growing wealth disparity in trade and management.
• The impact of government debts on international trade and management issues.
• The role of oil and gas: industry intentions, pricing strategies, etc.
• Trade as determined by currency instability.

International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC is having the following essential reading for:

• Academic institutes
• Academics and researchers in all areas of business
• Administrators
• Bureaucrats
• CEO's
• Consultants
• Directors
• Economist
• Finance Managers
• HR Managers
• Line Managers
• IT People
• Marketing Managers
• Performance Managers
• Personnel Managers
• Professors
• Post Graduate Students
• Reformers
• Researchers
• Senior Managers
• Social Thinkers
• Training Managers

List of Volumes/Issues

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