Society for Global
Studies and Research

Chief Editor

Dr. S.K.S. Yadav
Department of Commerce
Meerut College, Meerut
U.P. (India)


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::Society for Global Studies & Research(SGSR)::
List of Volumes/Issues

International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC, Volume: 10(2021>), Issue: 2(July-December)

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1. Decentralization of Governance: Current Status and Future Prospect

Author: Akter, Afia,(Pages: 224-240)


For decades, Decentralization has been a central theme in the debate on governance worldwide. It is one of the most imperative reforms of the past generation. Its paramount importance in the transition to democracy became a significant point of the deliberations in both developed and developing economics. The most important theoretical argument concerning Decentralization is that it can improve governance by making the government more accountable and responsive to the governed. This paper emphasizes providing conceptual understanding about governance, good governance, Decentralization, and forms of Decentralization. Moreover, the study tries to figure out the relationship between Decentralization and governance and highlight the present status, challenges, and prospects of decentralized governance. Finally, this paper also gives thought-provoking insights to the researchers and policymakers in governance.
Keywords:Decentralization, governance, good governance, and democracy.

2. Socio-Economic Ambience of Slum Dwellers

Author: Ahmad, Shamim,(Pages: 241-255)


The study analyzes the socio-economic condition of slum dwellers living in Dhakas Kamlapur area. It focuses on the central problem undertaken for the research study whether the slum dwellers of Dhaka city receive their basic needs & constitutional rights or not. The study is both qualitative & quantitative. Primary data are gathered from 50 respondents from the slum dwellers living in the Kamlapur slum area & at the same time. The secondary data have been collected from various journals, articles, books, thesis papers & newspapers published at different times. The study emphasizes the issues that the slum dwellers are deprived of, especially the essential requirements, the basic needs they are supposed to get constitutionally as a citizen of Bangladesh. In different research studies, it is found that the majority of them are not able to afford their subsistence level of livelihood instead suffer from deprivations & miseries. Sanitation becomes out of their reach. An immediate effect is often visible due to the shortage of urban services & the poor socio-economic status. They cannot afford safe water & water supply. As a result, they suffer from many kinds of health issues especially having diarrhea, dysentery & many other water bear diseases as their daily companies. The study also finds several emerging & challenging aspects that prevent the slum dwellers from maintaining living standards rather than living in unhygienic places with an acute want of healthy food, nutrition, treatment, safety,& necessary governmental assistance. For solving these problems the slum dwellers are experiencing, the study suggests a few of the effective measures that can be implemented to minimize the issues & raise the living ambiance of the slum dwellers through the active implication of the policies.
Keywords: Socio-economic, Slum, Livelihood, Basic Needs, Framework.

3. A Comparative Financial Analysis Between World Top Two E-Commerce Companies: Amazon and Alibaba

Author: Qureshi, M.M., Yadav, S.K.S.,(Pages: 256-268)


Now in our daily life, the Internet plays an important role. Almost daily, we use the Internet for every single work. Nowadays, people are likely to buy and sell products and services over the electronic system, and they are reliable and comfortable using e-commerce. From pin to ship, everything is available on the web. Commercial markets are transforming into e-commerce centers now. People generally avoid visiting crowded markets rather than prefer online shopping, which is more convenient because of their busy schedules and provides them with a relaxed shopping environment. Now, various social e-commerce sites are available for customers world-wide. In the present study, we will do a comparative analysis of the financial statements of two international ecommerce companies, Amazon and Alibaba. Amazon is an Americanbased multinational e-commerce company, while Alibaba is a China-based global e-commerce company. Using ten years (from 2010 to 2020) secondary data, we will analyze the financial performance of companies by using the five-way DuPont Model. DuPont model is the most important model for measuring the R.O.E. of companies. This study will evaluate the best among the two selected companies, Amazon and Alibaba.
Keywords:E-Commerce, R.O.E., DuPont Model.

4. Impact of Pandemic on FIIs Investment in Indian Capital Market

Author: Mittal, Shwetabh & Jain, M.K.,(Pages: 269-)


Indias Capital Market was opened to FIIs in the last decade of the 20th century. Since then, high volatility has been seen in the stock market on the flow of DIIS and FIIs funds. The role of individual investors is to watch the market trends. In this study, an effort is made to analyze the impact of a pandemic caused due to the Novel Corona Virus on FIIs investment in India. In this study, we have taken three years from October 2018 to September 2021. Eighteen months before the pandemic and 18 months after the pandemic. The study revealed that FIIs have great faith in the Indian Stock Market as their inflow has increased during the post-pandemic period.
Keywords:Indian Stock Market, Nifty 50, Pandemic, and FIIs.

5. An Influence of Competency Development and Empowerment on Employees Performance in Telecom

Author: Jain, K.R. & Verma, Nimisha,(Pages: 281-288)


The competitive business environment of the telecommunication sector has proposed that employees should be competently developed and empowered to reduce absenteeism and employee turnover and have better outcomes concerning growth. The primary purpose of this study is to analyze Employees Performance through Competency Development and Empowerment Employees. This research has been conducted in the telecommunication sector, preferably Vodafone Idea Limited. This study is quantitative and empirical. Data has been collected primarily by circulating the questionnaire to the studys respondents. Method of convenience sampling has been adopted for the research among the employees of Vodafone Idea in Uttarakhand and the Western Uttar Pradesh region, India. Frequency and descriptive statistics and Correlation, ANOVA, and multiple regression techniques have been used to analyze data. Findings of the study have been mentioned for adequate implications and future perspectives.
Keywords: Competency Development, Empowerment of Employees, Employees Performance and Telecommunication.

6. A Study on Major Factors Affecting Online Shopping Behavior of Indian Consumers

Author: Bindal, Shuchi & Agarwal, Santram,(Pages: 289-294)


This research study investigates the key factors that play a crucial role in influencing the buying behaviour of Indian Consumers towards online shopping. The internet has significantly changed the way people shop from traditional brick-and-mortar to click-and-mortar. For this purpose, primary and secondary data have been analyzed and used. A wellstructured questionnaire has been exclusively designed to collect preliminary data from 200 online shoppers. Conclusions derived from this study reveal convenience, a massive variety of goods and services, lower prices, quick and easy product replacement, hassle-free refund facility, prompt delivery. And no sales pressure are the essential key factors that contribute to influence the buying behaviour of Indian consumers concerning online shopping. The findings of the study are relevant for e-commerce companies and e-marketers to understand the psychology and the buying behaviour of their actual and potential consumers in a better way and thus will help in formulating various marketing strategies accordingly to increase market share and consumer satisfaction as well.
Keywords: Indian Consumers, Consumer behaviour, Online shopping, Online shoppers, Buying behaviour.

7. An Empirical Study of Profitability & Liquidity Behaviour in Bharat Petroleum Corpon Ltd. & Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Author: Kumar, Akshya & Varshney, Monika,(Pages: 295-301)


An endeavor to measure the overall operating efficiency through Profitability and Liquidity taking BPCL & HPCL has been made in this paper for ten years from 2011-12 to 2020-21to establish an empirical relationship amongst Variables based on statistical techniques. Empirical workings have been done with the help of Multiple R, R2 , Multiple Regression, T Test, and F Ratio.
Keywords:BPCL, HPCL, Petroleum products, Operating efficiency, Return on capital employed

8. Human Cloning: A Socio-Legal Study

Author: Singh, K.P.,(Pages: 302-307)


The creation of Dollys sheep using this technology by the Englishman Ian Wilmut and his scientific colleagues in 1998 was a breakthrough in science and technology. Scientists have synthesized complex elements such as genes and cells for many years. Still, the herds success has prompted researchers to try human cloning, which technically includes the most controversial topic in the world. Human Cloning is a new term; Cloning refers to a scientific method that involves creating a genetic replica of an animal or an existing person. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) is used in human cloning. It is a process by which the nucleus of a fertilized egg is replaced by a somatic cell nucleus (the nucleus of an adult cell), either a nucleus from an ovum donor or a nucleus from another human cell. This paper aims to describe human cloning and some issues surrounding cloning, the importance of human cloning for human beings, and some legal implications.
Keywords: Human Cloning, Human rights, Religious and Ethical issues.

9. Self-Help Groups in Uttar Pradesh: Issues and Challenges

Author: Jain, M.K. & Mittal S.,(Pages: 308-316)


Today, the self-help group (S.H.G.) is one of the most critical matters of the twenty-first century. These are primarily designed to empower women in low-income socio-economic areas. In our daily lives, we can see self-help groups are insufficient to empower women since they are small voluntary associations of less than twenty people, either registered or unregistered, preferably from the same and lower socio-economic background. In India, S.H.G. has become the main objective of eradicating poverty and uplifting women. This movement has gained momentum worldwide, especially in India, due to the uncounted emergence of community-based N.G.O. Although, working these community-based N.G.O. is a significant challenge. The study is based purely on secondary sources. This article aims to raise awareness of the problems that S.H.G.s face in Uttar Pradesh and offer solutions
Keywords:Self-Help Groups, Community Based N.G.O.s, Socioeconomic Conditions.

10. An Analytical Study of Universal Banking in India

Author: Aggarwal, Richa & Garg, Shubhra,(Pages: 317-322)


In the Indian banking scenario, Universal Banking is a new concept. It can be said to be a provider for different financial products under a single roof. Other sectors like Business houses, households, etc., can avail many financial services like loans, insurance, stock market investments, etc. while doing routine banking like withdrawal and deposit. In India, too, many opportunities are available and exploited in the banking sector as a universal bank. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the prospects and impact of Universal Banking in the Indian market. The banking sector in India diligently follows the worldwide trend in global financial developments. It is believed that the concept of global super financial markets could play an essential role in the future by the opening of the Indian Banking sector to foreign players.
Keywords:Financial Institution, Supermarkets, Universal Banking, Development Financial Institutions(DFIs).

11. An Analytical Study of Ideal Fixation of Prices of Agricultural Crops in India (With Special Reference to Uttar Pradesh)

Author: Chauhan, R.S. & Qureshi, M.M.,(Pages: 323-332)


On the lines of an ideal National Agriculture Policy and National Highway, National Irrigation Highway can give rise to a new Green Revolution. The prosperity of the country depends on the prosperity of the farmers here. The worth of farmers largely depends on the rewards of their produce. Therefore, the ideal fixation on agricultural prices is of great importance. According to Sir Jogendra Singh, "A farmer should not be expected to increase production if the monetary value of the farmers labour decreases due to increased production." There is a need for study and improvement in the perspective of various problems like growth, easy access to agricultural equipment, increase in production through diversification, hybridization of crops, sale of crops at reasonable prices, and a proper export system if more production occurs. Agriculture is the main occupation in underdeveloped countries, is the largest source of national income, the primary source of employment and livelihood, the basis of industrial development, commerce, and trade. Poor and developing nations cannot achieve a high economic growth rate with limited resources unless they develop a primary agricultural industry. The study results reveal that in the case of crops, the increase in MSP is significantly less than the inputs like fuel, labour, and fertilizer, which have increased drastically. It shows that these factors increase production costs, which puts pressure on the farmers.
Keywords:National Irrigation Highway, New Green Revolution, Crop rotation, Ideal Agricultural Prices, Compensation.

12. An Analytical Study of Outreach and Financial Performance of Selected Micro Finance Institutions in India

Author: Singh, V.P. & Gupta, H.O. ,(Pages: 333-340)


Poverty is one of the foremost challenges facing the Indian government; various measures have been taken to eradicate poverty. The microfinance model hopes to raise funds by lending the money using different models in this situation. Several studies have been conducted worldwide, and it is widely accepted that microfinance initiatives have made a significant difference to target groups that do not have easy access to credit. However, the financial feasibility of microfinance institutions is increasingly questioned. In the long run, MFI must be economically viable and sustainable. This white paper examines MFIs performance in terms of outreach and financial performance. It examines the reach and profitability of selected microfinance institutions operating in India between 2010 and 2017. These institutions need to pursue high goals through superior financial performance that operate financially efficiently for disadvantaged groups benefit to continue their operations.
Keywords:Microfinance, financial sustainability, Return on equity, Operational self-sufficiency, Return on Assets.

13. An Analytical Study of Covid-19 Impact on Indian Banking Industry

Author: Mittal, A.K. ,(Pages: 341-352)


The destruction created by the global COVID-19pandemic; has fallen the worlds economic indicators. Whether it is a developing nation, underdeveloped nation, or the worlds most powerful economy, for that matter, no country escaped safely from its impact. All industries have been hit adversely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It has created a bad situation in the market. The banking industry has also not been spared from being affected by this. The outbreak of COVID-19 has challenged the Indian banking industry adversely. Indian Banks informed rise in NPAs, demand of Loan and in turn, impacted profitability. Because of the nation-wise lockdown, industries and markets were shutdown. There were no sources of Income and increasing expenses. Therefore, the Public was demanding loans, and alternatively, they were not capable of repaying the loan. So, a liquidity crisis arose. To overcome this COVID19 pandemic situation, Indias apex body bank Reserve Bank of India, and Central Government have taken several steps to provide relief. This research paper intends to analyze the relationship between NPAs, Advances, and Profitability due to COVID-19 and the effect of steps taken by RBI and the government on the Indian Banking Industry. For this purpose, we have an analytical study of Public and Private banks. Out of these two public banks, Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank, and two private banks, ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank for consecutive six previous years. The data were analyzed using statistical tools to examine the impact of NPAs and net advances during COVID-19. It also analyzes the impact of the banks profitability.
Keywords: Non-Performing Assets (NPAs), Economy, Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Covid-19.

14. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and India Security Concerns

Author: Kumar, Sanjay,(Pages: 353-363)


During the visit to Pakistan in May 2013, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang proposed a China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) for connecting Kashgar in China Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region with the southwestern Pakistani port of Gwadar. China in recent years made significant offers to Pakistan because the former conceives Islamabad as a partner that can play a crucial role in restraining India. Many observers, including political analysts and security and defense experts, interpret these actions as a Chinese make attempt to further its expansionist agenda in the broader Indo-Pacific region and achieve a strategic encirclement of India in South Asia. India has expressed its limitations about the project, as the proposed CPEC will pass through the territory disputed between Pakistan and India. In this context, the present paper sought to assess the crucial security issues involved in CPEC. It would also throw light on the concealed rationale behind the CPEC initiative. Further, it would discuss the security implications to India from CPEC.
Keywords: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, Belt, and Road Initiative, India, Jammu, and Kashmir.

15. Israel: Is COVID-19 expected more than a war? The increase in customs value in Israel, due to the COVID-19 increase in transport prices - the problem, and the solution

Author: Wagner, Omer,(Pages: 364-371)


Sea freight prices have risen sharply, due to the COVID-19 crisis, global shortages of ships, declining competition in the field, and containers of contagious demand. In Israel, the value for customs purposes includes the transportation costs, as in Singapore, and the majority of the states. On the contrary, the US, Australia and NZ, have chosen to exclude transportation costs, for customs value purposes. Therefore, the increase in transportation costs leads to the increase in the value of goods for customs purposes, and to a further collection of customs duties, in Israel. The Israeli law allows the state to facilitate importers and waive the extra customs duties, and similar and other facilitations have been made in the past, for example, in a war or strike situations. Therefore, all that is required is the flexibility and activation of goodwill on the part of the state, when interpreting the law, in order to relieve the importers from extra duties, caused by the COVID-19 crisis.
Keywords:customs, valuation, transport, covid19, Israel.

16. An Empirical Study of Saving and Investment Pattern of Salaried Class persons with Special Reference To Meerut City (India)

Author: Riyazuddin ,(Pages: 372-382)


Investment is a form of activity that individuals who have to save engage in, i.e. investments are made with their savings, or in other words, people invest their money in banks, gold, real estate, post services, mutual funds, and a number of other investment possibilities are all accessible Investors invest their money for a variety of reasons and objectives, including profit, security, appreciation, and income stability. The researcher investigated the many types and channels of investment, as well as the elements that must be considered when choosing an investment, using a sample size of 100 salaried employees and performing a survey in the city of Meerut, India, through a questionnaire In fact, the current study uses a selfassessment questionnaire to determine which investment paths are favored by individual investors. The researcher discovered that paid employees value safety and a decent return on investment when making frequent investments. Except for female investors, respondents are far more knowledgeable of the many investment options available in India. The current research looks at the savings and investment habits of people in the salaried class, with a focus on Meerut (India).
Keywords: Investment, Savings, Security, Commodity, investor etc.

17. Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Povert

Author: Nazmun Nahar Nemny,(Pages:383-384)


Poverty is a burning issue around the globe. It is a daily issue for the least developing and underdeveloped countries and a very tough war to fight. This book discussed poor economics and tried to show a path to fight global poverty differently other than the stereotypical way that global leaders adopt.
Keywords:Poor Economics, stereotypical

18. Readings in Bangladesh Development: Volume II

Author: Maeha Emannum Tithi,(Pages: 385-387)


"Readings in Bangladesh Development" has been published by the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies to honor the father of the nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, on his birth centenary. The two-volume book comprises notable published articles over the last 50 years. Fifty years have been divided into two halves, and the second volume incorporates 23 articles produced between 2000-2020. The aim was to cover pertinent contemporary development issues and challenges experienced by the country over the years. In this regard, cutting-edge research in various sub-disciplines conducted by old and young scholars has been included. The articles cover governance, infrastructure, N.G.O.s and microcredit, human development, urbanization, poverty reduction, inequality, etc. This report is comprised of some of the major highlights of the book.

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