Society for Global
Studies and Research

Chief Editor

Dr. S.K.S. Yadav
Department of Commerce
Meerut College, Meerut
U.P. (India)


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::Society for Global Studies & Research(SGSR)::
List of Volumes/Issues

International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC, Volume: 4(2015>), Issue: 1(Jan-Jun(2015))

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1. Factors Influencing the Behavior of the Mobile Phone Users to Switch Their Mobile Telecommunication Operators in Bangladesh

Author: Md. Abdullah Al Jamil, Md. Shahadat Hossain Sunny and Md. Rakibul Hasan,(Pages: 15-26)


The study seeks to explore the reasons that influence the brand switching behavior of the consumers in the mobile telecommunication sector of Bangladesh. The data has been collected from Comilla city area through a structured self-administered questionnaire survey on 50 respondents and frequency distribution, Pearson correlation and multiple regression models have been used to analysis the data. The empirical results reveal that tariff package, internet facility and promotional activity have significant influence on consumers’ brand switching behavior. The study shows call charges and tariff plan plays the most important role in switching the service providers and it was followed by network coverage, quality, internet package, advertising, promotion, value added services and customer care services. Thus, telecommunication operators should provide more focus on consumers’ choice criteria for reducing switching rate.
Keywords:Brand switching behavior, consumer behavior, customer service, mobile telecommunication industry of Bangladesh.

2. Opposition Parties and Political Opposition in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic : A Necessity or Distraction

Author: Alafuro Epelle, Lovinah Kakpilo Enyekit,(Pages: 27-35)


The Nigerian political system is one that has been characterized by a near absence of formidable opposition over the decades. This is contrary to what happens in developed countries of the West where opposition parties have been known to keep faith with the mandate of the people by serving as a necessary check on the activities of the ruling party. However, in recent time, there seems to be some rumble from the opposition parties in the country as they are beginning to coalesce into a formidable group for their collective interest. Incidentally, considering the peculiarity of our system where more often than not political affiliation, disposition or inclination is not premised on any ideological conviction but, more rightly, on the leeway it provides for primitive accumulation, it remains to be seen if this new found voice by the opposition will be beneficial to the generality of the citizens or a distraction of a sort. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to critically examine the role of the opposition parties and political opposition in the Nigerian state and make recommendations towards repositioning them for a more altruistic contribution in the current democratic dispensation.
Keywords:Political Parties, Opposition Parties, Nigerian State, Primitive Accumulation

3. Changing Lifestyle and Consumption Patterns of Indian Rural Households: An Analytical Study

Author: Zeeshan Amir, Ali Ghufran,(Pages: 36-51)


An individual communicates about his/her activities, attitudes, interests, opinions, values, and allocation of income through his/her life style. People’s perception about their own image gets influenced by their changing motivation and needs. Indian market has seen a tremendous change in life style of a common man. The remarkable change in urban life style has trickled across the rural population too. Island of poverty still exists but most of the rural area has transformed beyond imagination. The changing economy has put unprecedented disposable income into the hands of rural consumers who are steadily moving forward towards better quality of life. The present study takes into account the impact of changing lifestyle on consumption pattern in relation to selected demographic variables and socio-economic characteristics. The lifestyle has been explained with respect to food consumption, fashion trends, entertainment, and use of technology. This study is an endeavor to understand how the change in lifestyle of rural households is affecting their consumption pattern bringing a noticeable change in their living standard. The analysis of consumer lifestyle which reflects the psychographics is an important factor in determining how consumers make their purchase decisions and consume the life style goods.
Keywords:Lifestyle, Socio-economic characteristics, consumption pattern

4. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR (Analysis of Socio–Demographic Effect on Use of Source of Repair and Maintenance of Two Wheelers)

Author: Dharmendra Kumar,(Pages: 52-62)


Two wheelers have been selected for the study because nowadays, it is being used as a necessity. Primary data from 359 consumers of Scooter and 220 consumers of Motorcycle from different district of Uttarakhand have been collected through pretested questionnaire. Proper consideration has been given to Quota Present study describes the concept of ‘consumer’ and ‘consumers’ post purchase Sampling to divide the sample into independent variables. Statistical technique like percentage method and chi square (χ2) method used to analyse the data. The study provides information about different brands of durables purchased by sample consumers and has given specific emphasis to socio-demographic effect on consumers’ behaviour regarding “use of different source of repair” and “amount spent on maintenance of durables”. Study reveals that high majority of the sample have purchased LML brand of Scooter followed by BAJAJ but in case of Motorcycle, vast majority of consumers purchased the product of BAJAJ followed by HONDA and TVS. Regarding source of repair of durables, Private Service Centre was popular source of repair followed by Authorised Dealer. It has also been disclosed that Residential Status and Family Income of Consumers significantly affect their behaviour regarding selection of source of repair of both the durables but Consumer’s Education has no effect on selection of source of repair for Scooter. Regarding amount spent on maintenance of durables, it is found that high majority of consumers have spent “above Rs.900” half yearly for both the durables. It is also observed that Residential Status significantly affect consumer’s maintenance behaviour regarding Motorcycle. Education Level significantly affect maintenance behaviour for both the durables, whereas, consumer’s Family Income affect their maintenance behaviour only for Scooter not for Motorcycle.
Keywords:Old Brands, Latest Brands, Socio Demographic, Maintenance, Repair, Service, Authorised, Durables.

5. Effectiveness of ‘Make in India’ Project for the Economic Development of Entrepreneur: A Case Study of Uttarakhand State

Author: Parmil Kumar, Neeraj Kumar,(Pages: 63-71)


Make in India is an initiative of the Government of India, to encourage companies to manufacture their products in India. It was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 25 September 2014. At the concluding session of the national workshop on Make in India in Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi, 29 December 2014 Modi had hinted towards the initiative in his Independence Day speech of 15 August 2014. On 29 December 2014, a workshop was organized to make industrially sound and advanced country by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion which was attended by Modi, his Cabinet ministers, chief secretaries of states and various industry leaders. This is nice project and these types of project not only encourage the entrepreneur but also provide the right direction to enhance in the field of economy and try to develop the economy of India day by day. This paper analysis the effectiveness of make in India programme for the economic development of Entrepreneurs of Uttarakhand state.
Keywords:Make in India, Indian Economy, skill India, FDI etc.

6. Human Resource Development in LIC of India

Author: Trilochan Sharma,(Pages: 72-78)


The Life Insurance Corporation of India established in 1956. It was a big step by the Union Government to nationalize the life insurance business. The government passed an act in the parliament to nationalize the life insurance business. This act called as Life Insurance Corporation Act 1956. The LIC was a single life insurance player in the Indian Market till the year 2000. The Government of India was open the Insurance Market in the year 2000. It has broke the monopoly of LIC in the Life Business. The Corporation has a largest human resource in insurance business. For the proper utilization the corporation running different training program. The corporation collaborates with world repute organizations to provide the proper training to their personals. The corporation is providing in house and external training both. Corporation has Zonal training Centre, Divisional Training centre and Agent Training Centre for in house training of personals. The corporation is collaborating with IIM, XLRI, MDI and other national repute Institute for human resource development. The corporation covered 89 percent of employees under the training in the year 2012-13. It arranged 115 training program in the year 2012-13.
Keywords:Organizational Development, Carrier Development, Employee Orientation, Skill and Technical Training, Management Training, Supervisory Development

7. Volatility Trends and Their Relationship with FIIs in Indian Stock Market

Author: S.K Rastogi, Nazaquat Husain,(Pages: 79-91)


The study pertains to India, which is one of the fast growing markets in the world. India is an appropriate case for conducting such a study, as portfolio investment has become the dominant path of foreign investment in the Indian economy. India liberalized its financial market and allowed FIIs to participate in their domestic markets in 1992. The opening up of the market resulted in a number of positive effects. First, the stock exchanges had to improve the quality of their trading and settlement procedures in line with the best practices of the world. Second, the transparency and information flows improved on account of the entry of FIIs in India. However, people are also sensing negative effects in the form of potential destabilization because of the bulk buying and selling activity of FIIs. The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE) are two leading stock exchanges of India. The foreign institutional investors are investing in these markets. So, both of these markets have been taken to study the determinants of the foreign institutional investment in India. The National Stock Exchange was launched in 1992 and FIIs were also permitted to invest in Indian market in September 1992. Because of this the reference period for the study to investigate the impact of FIIs on stock market in India has been taken from January 1986 to December 2014. However, due to its non-existence the data on NSE prior to 1994 was not available. Hence, it was not appropriate to take National Stock Exchange data to ensure the impact of foreign institutional investors on stock market return and volatility. Therefore, to determine the impact of FIIs on Indian stock market (i.e. on return and volatility) Bombay Stock Exchange has been considered.
Keywords:Economy, Foreign Institutional Investments (FIIs), Indian Stock Market, and Volatility.

8. Problems Faced by Handloom & Powerloom Industries in Uttar Pradesh

Author: Mamta Chaudhary, Anjali Saini, Rakhi Solanki,(Pages: 92-105)


The Indian textile industry has an awesome existence in the Indian economy. It is second largest employer after Agriculture sector in India. It is one of the largest in the world with a massive raw material and textiles manufacturing base. Currently, it contributes about 14 percent to industrial production, 4 percent to the GDP and 17 percent to the country's export earnings. Around 35 million people are directly employed in the textile manufacturing activities. Indirect employment including the manpower engaged in agricultural based raw-material production like cotton and related trade; and handling could be stated to be around another 60 million. The India Textile Industry has three main segments mill sector, handloom sector and decentralised powerloom sector. Handloom & powerloom are the traditional industry of India and it provides employment opportunities to millions of people in the rural and urban belts of our country. After industrialization, the handloom & powerloom industries have been decline. Most of the problems faced by handloom & powerloom industry are perpetual in nature and hence to sustain the cultural and economic importance of the industry. The present study is an attempt to understand the various problems of Handloom & powerloom industries in Uttar Pradesh. The problems are invention of new technology (powerloom), capitalist control, drop off in wages, increased price of yarn, and so on. The present study is descriptive in nature. The data have been collected through the in-depth interview, semi structured interview, case study and focused group discussion.
Keywords:Handloom weaver, Powerloom, Gaddidar, Bani, Mahajans, etc.

9. Employee Motivation and Retention through Training and Development

Author: Sangeeta,(Pages: 106-114)


Training is essential because technology is developing continuously at a faster rate. Systems and practices get outdated soon due to new discoveries in technology, including technical, managerial and behavioural aspects. Organizations that do not develop mechanisms to catch up with and use the growing technology soon become stale. However, developing individuals in the organization can contribute to its effectiveness of the organization. A good training sub-system would help greatly in monitoring the directions in which employees should develop in the best interest of the organization. This paper highlights that a good training system also ensures that employees develop in directions congruent with their career plans.
Keywords:Nurturing employees, Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), Orientation Program

10. Survival of Handloom Industry during 19th and Early 20th Century in India

Author: Anjali Saini, Mamta Chaudhary & Rakhi Solanki,(Pages: 115-120)


Over the centuries handlooms have come to be linked with brilliance in India's creativity in fabrics. This paper seeks to examine the survival of handloom industry of India during 19th and early 20th century. It discusses why handloom industry of India which was flourishing in early 19th century faced devastating situation after coming of imported European manufactures into Indian market and how it survived this catastrophic distress.
Keywords:Handlooms, Handloom weavers, spun yarn, textiles industry, etc.

11. A Study of Downturn Trends of Crude Oil Price – An Economic Advantage for Indian Government and Consumers

Author: Pankaj Dixit, Amit Tyagi,(Pages: 121-126)


In this paper, we focus on the positive impact of the fall of crude oil prices on the Indian economy. In this fall trends of oil prices at international level, prices drop throughout an economy, relative purchasing power theoretically increases. We all are aware that Crude oil prices play a significant role in the economy of a country. India’s growth hovers around the import of oil as imports 70% of its crude requirements. Any negative change in the crude oil prices has an immediate positive impact on the increment in the GDP and IIP. For instance, a one-dollar fall in the price of oil saves the country about 40 billion rupees. This, in turn has a three-fold effect on the economy. From the limited perspective of India’s consumer economy, lower global oil prices undoubtedly augur well. Lower pump prices reduce pressure on the consumer who can spend the savings elsewhere, spurring the demand side of the economy.
Keywords:PSU, GDP, IIP, OPEC, CAD.

12. Application of Human Resource Selection and Training Tools Still a Valid Need of Modern Human Resource Management

Author: Kanika Maheshwari,(Pages: 127-133)


The job of Human Resources today is to make people and organizations grow, yet it has only marginally evolved since its inception around the end of the nineteenth century. Starting as “Personnel,” to protect women and girls in industrial environments, it gradually morphed into other realms including employee hiring, firing, attendance, and compensation. As the world of work — and the world in general — becomes faster, more complicated, and more competitive, attracting, retaining and motivating human resources becomes more and more critical to organizational success. Although countless “gurus” and other management experts have spouted it for years, good people really are the most valuable resource in almost every organization. Knowing how to find them, how to handle them, and how to win their loyalty is particularly important in the cultural sector where first-class employees with a passion for culture are at a premium. Hopefully it will help you to create an environment where people gravitate to and thrive in your organization. Thus, this paper makes analysis of Human Resource selection and training tools and their need in the modern Human Resource Management.
Keywords:Foster worker engagement, Endorsement, Feedback, Employer branding, Skill Assessment, Social media programme platform, massive open online, Business Intllegence

13. Legal Cure of Indian Shame

Author: Dwarika Prasad,(Pages: 134-140)


The problem of manual scavenging is a curse on our society. Many laws were enacted but failed due to various reasons. But now I hope that with help of the various strict provisions and the efficacy of the monitoring mechanism this new law will prove to be a great piece of social legislation. Though, the society would also have to contribute a lot for the success of this new law. The people should change their attitude towards dalits, untouchables not by the fear of the sanctions of any law but from the core of their heart.
Keywords:Manual, Scavengers, Rehabilitation, Safety, Tanks, Sewer

14. Customized Investment Strategy

Author: Somya Sharma and D.R. Yadav,(Pages: 141-146)


Mostly people select mutual fund and real estate as their investment option, whether in turns of awareness or actual investment. That is we can say that there exists two kind of people, one who want high growth at very fast rate and others who want high growth for sure may be in longer span of time. Ulips and bonds are gaining popularity but need some more efforts to increase awareness. The paper tries to analyse the current investing patterns and concerns of the investors thereby identifying the potential customers for products and their expectations based on which final conclusion has been drawn.
Keywords:Banking Sector, Investments, Strategies

15. Management Motivation for Implementing the Balanced Scorecard in Indian Banking Sector

Author: Sanjeev Kumar,(Pages: 147-159)


Performance measurement and management system plays an important role in evaluating the strategic performance of the organization. Many managers agree that their measurement systems do not adequately perform this function. In the recent years, performance measurement has become a hot topic, and has witnessed continuous development and modifications by academicians and practitioners. The structural changes and emerging trends associated with the new open environment have rendered the traditional financial performance measures which concentrate only on financial performance (ignoring the non-financial aspect) ineffective. The interest in this topic is triggered by growing criticism of financial measures use in the performance measurement and management system. A shift towards Balanced Scorecard (BSC) has emerged as a managerial approach to evaluate strategic performance of the organization. The successful application of BSC does not come from vacuum; rather top management of the banks should demonstrate its commitment to the adoption of BSC.
Keywords:BSC, PMS (Performance Measurement System), Private and Public Banks

16. Globalization and Its Impact on the Performance of Small Scale Industries in India

Author: Mamta Chaudhary, Anjali Saini,(Pages: 160-171)


Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, service, technology and capital. Whereas globalization is cantered on the rapid development of science and technology and increasing cross-border division of labour, economic globalization is propelled by the rapid growing significance of information in all types of productive activities and marketization; the advance of science and technologies. It provides several things to several people with removal of all trade barriers among countries. Globalization happens through three channels: trade in goods and services, movement of capital and flow of finance. Globalization in India is generally taken to mean ‘integrating’ the economy of the country with the world economy. The real thrust to the globalization process was provided by the new economic policy introduced by the Government of India in July 1991 at the behest of the IMF and the World Bank. The current paper is an attempt to critically analyze of the impact of globalization on Indian Small-Scale Industries. The main theme of the paper is to evaluate the performance of SSI, after globalization and to know the impact of Globalization on the performance of SSI .
Keywords:Globolization, Small Scale Industries (SSI), Employment, etc.

17. Study of Impact of Micro-Credit on Selected Area with Special Reference to Bangladesh

Author: Md. Shahriar Parvez, Md.Shakil,(Pages: 172-193)


Micro-credit is a part of microfinance, which provides a wider range of financial services, especially savings accounts, to the poor. Modern micro-credit is generally considered to have originated with the Grameen Bank founded in Bangladesh in 1983. Many traditional banks subsequently introduced micro-credit despite initial misgivings. The United Nations declared 2005 as the International Year of Microcredit. As of 2012, micro credit is widely used in developing countries and is presented as having "enormous potential as a tool for poverty alleviation. This study is based on the data generated through face to face interviews with a country-wide (rural) representative sample of rural micro-borrowers numbering 295 (over 99% female). The field work was conducted during October-November 2013. It has emerged from this study that micro-borrowers have generally remained tied to rudimentary trading, manufacturing and other economic activities regardless of the length of time they have been micro-borrowing. It also appears that micro-credit taken year after year repeatedly is the lifeline for the micro-borrowers to remain in business once they got involved. The study results show that some of the micro-borrowers have benefited in terms of reasonable increases in income but in majority of the cases there has not been a significant increase in income and about a quarter earn from micro-credit related activities and other sources taken together only about or below the average income of the rural poor. The study also shows the socio-economic impact of micro-credit, is marginal. And also observe selected MCIs (Micro Credit Institutions) situation on Bangladesh and their impact on their client.
Keywords:Micro-Credit, Socio-economic Impact, Poverty, Deprivation, Microfinance, Village banks.

18. Organizational Structure of Directorate of Industries and its Role with Special Reference to Uttar Pradesh

Author: Neelam Gupta,(Pages: 194-197)


District Industries centers (DICs) are playing very important role for the development of country under the supervision of State Directorate of Industries. In Uttar Pradesh these DICs are Serving to 76 districts and 809 Development Blocks in the field of Cottage and small scale Industries DICs are providing financial and non financial advice and assistance to such industries for their rapid growth in U.P. The paper indicates the organizational structure of Directorate of industries and its role to make the development of Uttar Pradesh state.
Keywords:State Small Industries Corporations, State Directorate of Industries, District Industries Centers, Development Blocks, Cottage and small scale Industries

19. Targeting of Food Subsidy in India

Author: Anjali Saini, Mamta Choudhary & Rakhi Solanki,(Pages: 198-207)


The amount of food subsidy depends on a number of factors such as procurement volume, public distribution system off take, storage levels and efficiency, gap between issue price and procurement price, handling efficiency of the various organizations and interest charges. Public distribution system was made a universal scheme in 1970s, but after the fiscal crisis of 1990s, major changes in food policy have been motivated by the goal of expenditure reduction to reduce the fiscal deficit. As a result, food subsidies were reduced and targeting was introduced in reforms of 1991. With a reduction in explicit food subsidies, structural adjustment usually entails a reduction in implicit subsidies and the result of this was food price inflation. Along with that liberalization eroded the objective of self sufficiency in food production. In 1992, the revamped public distribution system was introduced which involved targeting specific areas. Under revamped public distribution system special preference were given to the population who live in most difficult places of the country, like desert area, tribal areas, drought-prone areas, hilly areas and urban slums. Revamped public distribution system was introduced so that poorer consumers can access the subsidized grains; range of commodities supplied by fair price shops can be increased, selected commodities can be provided at prices lower than general public distribution system and coverage of poor population in targeted areas can be increased. This paper throws light on the need of subsidy on food and grains in India and its effects on Indian Economy.
Keywords:Food Security, Public Distribution System, Below Poverty Line (BPL), Ration Quota

20. Share Price Response to Quarterly Earnings Announcements

Author: Swati Mittal,(Pages: 208-217)


The information content of earnings is an issue of obvious importance for investors. Company’s earnings announcements are closely-watched events, being the main source of new information about company performance. The study investigated the impact of Quarterly Earnings announcements on the stocks constituting the Sensex. The study of the effect of clustering of event dates on the overall stock returns has been incorporated in the study. The objective is to check the share price behavior to quarterly earnings announcements. The study includes Top 100 companies rated by Chartered Financial Analyst Survey 2008 and informational efficiency for last ten calendar periods- January. 2004 to December 2013 has been investigated. The results show that the Indian Capital Market is semi-strong efficient as it is using the information relevant for security valuation and for investment decision-making. However, the reaction after the announcement shows that the Indian Capital Market is not perfectly efficient as abnormal returns have been observed both prior to and after the announcement. The role of SEBI can be instrumental in preventing insider trading so that the confidence of the investors is maintained and the stock market can become more vibrant and dynamic.
Keywords:Share Price behavior, Trading, Stocks, Capitoline database

21. Analysis of Customer Perception on the Core Service Quality of Freight Forwarding Business of Kuehne + Nagel Ltd.: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh

Author: Md. Zahir Uddin Arif,(Pages: 218-232)


This study analyses the customer perception on the service quality of freight forwarding business of Kuehne + Nagel Ltd. In this study, a cause and effect relationship between service quality and financial performance of a freight forwarding company in the context of Kuehne + Nagel Ltd. has also been identified qualitatively. As a result, for the purpose of the study, customer perception on the service quality factors on a Likert scale and financial aspects of the company have been analyzed. This study is exploratory in nature. To measure qualitatively the core service quality of Kuehne + Nagel Ltd. Bangladesh, this study has collected necessary primary information from the existing customers of Kuehne + Nagel Ltd. Bangladesh. However, secondary information have been collected from the company records, annual reports, balance sheets, and income statements to measure the financial performance and to present a qualitative effect of service quality with the financial performance of Kuehne + Nagel Ltd. The study has found out that considering the two factors- service quality and sales volume, service of Kuehne + Nagel Ltd. has no or little significant relationship with financial performance but the provision of high standards of service quality will lead to improve financial performance. This study will certainly be an encouragement for further studies in such areas of study. In addition, the findings and recommendations will contribute to the organizations involved in freight forwarding business as well as academicians, researchers, practitioners and research students of the globe in their respective field of study.
Keywords:Service quality, Financial performance, Freight forwarding business, Sea freight, Air freight, KN Login.

22. Demographic Dividend and Higher Education system in India: A Challenge and Opportunity

Author: Preeti Rani,(Pages: 233-243)


Youth can play a vital role in the formation of a country. The power of youth is believed to be one of the most important assets in the economic growth and prosperity of a country. This becomes even more significant when viewed in the context of a fast ageing population in the developed nations. By 2020 an average Indian expected to be only 29 years old against 37 years in China and U.S. 45 years in west Europe and 48 years in Japan. This is the Demographic dividend that we need to harness. The present higher education system in India is fragmented, scattered and takes place in more than 37,000 institutions called affiliated colleges many of which are tiny and trace better than higher secondary schools. 89% of under graduate students and 72% of post graduate students are enrolled in those colleges besides 83% of faculty members. Presently we are spending 3.8% of our GDP on education of which spending on higher education is 1.22% of GDP for the year 2010-2011. Individual monthly household expenditure on education is Rs.49.97 for the rural area and Rs.181.50 for urban area which constitutes 3.5% for rural and 7.5% for urban area of their total monthly expenditure. Tuition fee and private tutor accounts for their major portion of their spending on education while spending least on books, journals and library. By 2020 the working age population in India is expected to grow by 47 million. But size alone is not sufficient the quality of human resource is an important aspect. Indian youth needs to be equipped with knowledge and skills to compete globally. The primary ambition of young Indians are to move from smaller villages to large town to become rich but the gap between the youth expectation and reality is too wide. The present paper will focus on how we will bridge this gap and harness our youth to take advantage of this demographic dividend. The paper will also study whether our present higher education system and individual household expen
Keywords:Demographic Dividend, UGC (University Grant Commission), GDP (Gross Domestic Product), GER (Gross Enrolment Ratio), NSSO (National Sample Survey Organisation)

23. Implications to Redevelopment of FDI Inflows

Author: T.S. Tomar,(Pages: 244-248)


Although the economic development of its noted, repeatedly in discussions of the FDI field, predominated models of globalization generated by a variety of fields, focus on linear stages, phases, characteristics and assessment. Descriptive models of FDI help interested ones in economic development identify expertise but do not necessarily help us to understand the complexities of FDI in ever changing globalization settings. Expert inflows of FDI, a domain has also been found to lead to superior recall for information relevant to the domain but not for other types of information. Despite the liberalization over the last 25 years in the area of FDI that spans across disciplines, it is difficult to translate the research on FDI acquisition and novice comparisons into globalization practices. It is argued that examining the dynamic nature of FDI, it essential for advancing and understanding of FDI flows both in its initial development and over time. The value of the MFDIR over current approached to examination FDI is its ability to expand globalisation scholarship and improve the work of practitioners. By expanding current understandings of FDI and challenging existing stage models, we are able to offer an alternative that is useful to globalisation research. Toward this end, several implications are proposed for global researchers and practitioners based on the new conceptual model.
Keywords:Globalisation, economic expertise, territorial factors, metacognitive and FDI inflows.

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