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International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC, Volume: 5(2016), Issue: 1(Jan-June)

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1. Empirical Investigation of Exchange Rate and India’s Agricultural Exports : Cointegration and Causality Analysis

Author: Tarek Tawfik Alkhteeb ,(Pages:01-11 )

Abstract:

The present paper is an attempt to identify the agricultural products in which India has comparative advantage and to analyze the trend of comparative advantage during the post reform period. The study has found that India enjoys comparative advantage in almost all the agricultural and allied products except meat. Though India gained comparative advantage recently in meat, however in other products the RCA indices have witnessed a declining trend during the reform period. Further the study has also estimated the cointegration relationship between exchange rate and exports of disaggregated agricultural products and found that there is long run cointegrating relationship between exchange rate and seven of the eleven agricultural products. The application of vector error correction model to examine causal relationship between exchange rate and export of different agricultural products reveals that exchange rate does cause change in export of all these seven products which manifests long run cointegrating relationship. Since we find cointegration and causal relationship between exchange rate and exports of several agricultural products, the country should devise such monetary and foreign exchange policy that the exchange rate should not appreciate in real terms and should be maintained at least at par with its competitors.
Keywords:Agricultural products, exchange rate, revealed comparative advantage, cointegration, Granger causality

2. Using the 7Ps of Booms and Bitner as Controllable Tactical Marketing Tools: An Exploratory Study on Selected Super Shops in Bangladesh

Author: Md. Zahir Uddin Arif ,(Pages:12-29 )

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the use of 7Ps- product/service, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence as controllable tactical marketing tools of super shops in Bangladesh especially in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. Design/methodology/approach: Exploratory research design has been used for the purpose of the study. The study has obtained data from primary and secondary sources. Primary information have been gathered using an unstructured questionnaire from the interviews of 10 executives of 5 super shops (Agora, Almas Super Shop, Best Buy, Meena Bazaar and Shwapno) in Dhaka city selected through convenience sampling technique. Secondary information have been collected and analyzed from various published articles in refereed journals, published books, research monographs, reports published in daily newspapers and websites of different super shops. Findings: The study has found out that as tactical marketing tools, super shops use different mixtures of 7Ps as per their necessity to target and capture their different consumer segments and position into their minds creating brand loyalty to their retail stores. The study has recommended that the 7Ps should be blended effectively considering the bundle of demands of each segmented consumer market following market driven strategy. Practical implications: The study has practical implications for the entrepreneurs, investors, policymakers, industry experts, media, and domain experts to discuss and create a unified voice for super shop businesses in Bangladesh. Originality/value: The study will help to originate the value to both the super shop owners and consumers if the effective and efficient mixtures of 7Ps can be utilized more rigorously for better proliferation of the segmented markets. As a result, marketers can incorporate the convenient 7Ps structure in order to provide an insight for the super shop industry to evaluate the effectiveness o
Keywords:Marketing tools, Service Marketing mix, 7Ps, Retailing, Super shop, Dhaka city

3. Role of Bitcoin in Global Portfolio - An Empirical Study

Author: A Kotishwar ,(Pages: 30-38 )

Abstract:

In the modern economy role of electronic currency is playing a vital role for exchanging of goods and services between the countries in present days. There are many crypto currencies which are traded by the investors among them bitcoin has merged global leader. This study has been emphasized from the period of 2011-2015. Johanson co-integrated analysis has been applied on ADF values (Augmented Dicky Fuller) and formed the co-integration with select global assets along with dollar index. The granger casualty test results unveil that gold is the only asset class which is getting influenced by the dollar index. Modigliani risk adjusted method shows that performance of bitcoin is superior than the other asset classes. Vector auto regression analysis indicates that MSCI, gold and bitcoin future momentum is expected to go downside when sentiment index moves upside. This study is useful to the investors fraternity like global exporters and importers, investors of currency and retail investors of bitcoin
Keywords:Bitcoin, ADF values, MSCI, Global Reality Index, Sentiment Index

4. Human Resource Development Growth Strategy: An Exploratory Study on State Bank of India

Author: R. S. Meena ,(Pages: 39-46 )

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the HR policy initiatives of the State Bank of India, the country’s oldest and largest Bank which is going through a momentous phase of Change and Transformation. The State Bank of India is also attempting to change its age traditional thinking, attitudes and take all employees together on this exciting road to Transformation. Three notable initiatives in the recent past are considered under the purview of this paper. Through these initiatives which are designed by the bank for creating a sense of belief and togetherness, SBI has been able to strengthen its base and core in the changed environment which is clear from the recent performances and awards received by the bank. The focus of this paper is on the HR initiatives taken by the management of SBI and its relation with the profitability of the organization concluded that how development in the human resource is related to growth of a concern.
Keywords:HR strategy, growth strategy, policy initiatives, SBI and development.

5. Comparative Study of Traditional Kirana Stores and Modern Organised Retail Outlets

Author: Amit Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Rastogi, Naresh Kumar ,(Pages: 47-59 )

Abstract:

There are serious concerns about the entry of organised retailing in the Indian food sector. What impact will it have on Kirana Store owners and the economy? Based on a study of the Indian food retailing industry, this article indicates that while these concerns are valid, there are more winners than losers in the process. The paper exemplified winners and losers with the help of statistical tools. Moreover, business steps and policy measures, the government can adopt, are also elaborated to resolve the issues of Kirana Stores and Modern Retail Outlets.
Keywords:Food & Grocery; Indian Food Retailing Sector; Kirana Stores; and Modern Retail Outlet

6. A Comparative Study of the Whistle Blower Mechanism in Public and Private Sector Enterprises in Power and Chemical & Fertilizer Industries of India

Author: Kalpana Nebhinani, B.D. Sharma ,(Pages: 60-64 )

Abstract:

The whistle blower mechanism has been made compulsory in new company act 2013. Whistle blower is an employee who openly and freely alleges or informs to government agencies and audit committees about wrong doing of his own company in the hope of preventing it. Now Indian companies are required to formulate an internal policy on access to Audit committees. The present study examined the effectiveness of whistle blower mechanism in Indian public and private sector enterprises from chemical & fertilizer industry and power industry. This study focuses on practices of Indian companies in reference to the protection to whistle blowers. The sample was collected from 400 employees from above industries. The main findings revealed that there is no significant difference between effectiveness of whistle blower policy in public and private sector enterprises. It was also found that many employees of these companies are not known about this policy. So the main recommendation for effective institutionalization of this policy were ; there is a need to develop intranet network platform by every company, as well as appropriate communicating of this mechanism is required to make all employees more aware about whistle blower mechanism. In addition to this confidentiality is required to protect whistle blowers in both sectors of Indian companies.
Keywords:: Whistle blower, Corporate governance, Public sector, Private sector, Whistle blower policy, Stakeholders, Audit Committee, Misconduct

7. Assessment of Visual Fatigue Experienced By Female VDT Users

Author: Khushdeep Kaur, Harpinder Kaur, M. K Sidhu ,(Pages: 65-71 )

Abstract:

The last two decades have witnessed a rapidly changing trend towards the application of Video Display Terminal (VDT) technology for information management in the workplaces and homes. Most office workers use computers for at least some of the tasks that they perform, and many use VDTs for the majority of time that they spend at work. Survey on computer workers shows that vision discomfort is most frequent among computer users which may be due to frequent movement of eyes from monitor to the written material to be typed or vice versa. Other involved factors leading to visual fatigue and discomfort may be improper height of screen, poor lighting, and reflection due to screen position or glare. Therefore, a study was conducted on 120 female VDT users working in various banks of Ludhiana City to assess their visual fatigue by taking subjective responses. The results showed that poor vision, sensitivity of eyes and blurred vision were the main visual problems faced by respondents on the five point scale and got I, II and III ranks respectively. The main factors responsible for eye fatigue and strain were found as improper positioning of computer screen, inadequate lighting and glare. So, it was concluded that though the respondents faced many visual problems in relation to workstation design but they did not do anything to improve the design of the workstation which may be due to the lack of awareness at their part. Therefore, some suggestions were given to them in terms of adequate lighting, avoidance of glare and positioning of computer screen to reduce their visual fatigue.
Keywords:VDT, Visual fatigue, Glare from overhead light source. Blurred vision, Visual problems, Psychological stress

8. Black Money in India: Impact on Indian Economy

Author: Nazaquat Husain ,(Pages: 72-78 )

Abstract:

Black money circulating in the underground economy in India is a big menace for the Indian economy. This paper presents the different aspect of black money, causes of generating black money and also discussing its impact on various organs of Indian economy. In the age of globalization black money is not only problem of Indian economy but it also transcends the borders and has become a global problem. There is no doubt that the existence of black money has a significant impact on social, economic and political levels of our lives which has significant effect on the institutions of governance and conduct of public policy in the country. To control the generation of black money there should be a strong and legislature framework, implementation of concerned laws with strong will power. Government try maximum efforts to bring back black money stashed abroad.
Keywords:Black Money, Corruption, Indian Economy, Underground Economy

9. Analysis of Working Capital: A Case Study of Godrej Agrovet Limited

Author: Yashmin Sofat, Deeksha Kapoor ,(Pages: 79-86 )

Abstract:

“Working capital is the life blood and controlling nerve centre of a business”. No business can be successfully run without an adequate amount of working capital. To avoid the shortage of working capital at once, an estimate of working capital requirements should be made in advance so that arrangements can be made to procure adequate working capital. But estimation of working capital requirement is not an easy task and a large no. of factors have to be considered before starting this exercise. In this paper, authors attempt to highlight the need for working capital and to understand the concept of working capital and its importance. Author also focused on to determine the amount of the working capital employed by GAVL and analyze the working capital management financial performance. Author also offer suggestions based on findings of the study. The present study is restricted to a single unit of GAVL at Khanna.
Keywords:Working Capital Management, GAVL, CAPM, Working Capital Requirement

10. An Analytical Study of MGNREGA Poverty Alleviate Programmes in Special Reference of Uttar Pradesh

Author: Deepti, R.C. Lal ,(Pages: 87-99 )

Abstract:

The paper has looked at Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2015 MGNREGA analytically and has provided details about funding, employment generation, works undertaken, etc., in Uttar Pradesh. An overview of literature is also provided in this paper. The MGNREGA programme aims at enhancing livelihood security of the rural poor by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The Act seeks to create durable assets and strengthen the livelihood resource base of the rural poor. The choice of works suggested in the Act address causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation, soil erosion, so that the process of employment generation is on a sustainable basis. The outlay for Scheme is Rs. 41,699 crore for the financial year 2015-16. The study has outlined some of the criticisms being levied against MGNREGA. To study the impact of MGNREGA in different villages of Uttar Pradesh, The aspects covered in the study include variation in wages in market and under MGNREGA, nature of works undertaken and economic impact on the beneficiaries of the Scheme.
Keywords:MGNREGA, IROF, NRT-GP

11. A Comparative Study of the Determinants Affecting the Formation of Commodity Derivative Indices

Author: Nishant Kumar, Ganesh Jain ,(Pages: 100-108 )

Abstract:

The paper discusses the diversity found in the formation and functioning of commodity derivatives across a wide array of commodity exchanges. Commodity exchanges in India lack in certain characteristics which do not let them fully capture the realities prevailing in the market place. Therefore a comparison has been made on the lines of exchange functioning among world exchanges vis a vis Indian commodity exchanges.
Keywords:Rollover, Weighing Methodology, NYMEX, CBOT, COMEX, LME, NYBOT, CME.

12. Office Politics and Backstabbing: An Impact on Employees Performance

Author: Nidhi Singhal, Princi Gupta ,(Pages: 109-114 )

Abstract:

It is a fact that backstabbing is dangerous because in some situations we may lose a good career development opportunity or even it ruined our career in that particular organization. So, we firmly believe that one need to prepare a strategy to deal with politics and backstabbing by applying a blanket protection strategy in advance. If we are developing a career in a corporate environment, the question is not if will experience office politics and backstabbing attempts. It is just a matter of when this will happen. This paper explores together how to best defend ourself against office politics and backstabbing.
Keywords:Professionalism, Trust, Corporate Environment, Backstabbing, Politics, Stress, Goals, Friendship, Career Opportunity.

13. Role of Gandhi's Khadi Textile Industry Towards Inclusive Growth and Corporate Social Responsibility

Author: Pankaj Dixit, Dr. R.C. Lal ,(Pages: 115-120 )

Abstract:

In this research paper, we focus on the ''Role of Gandhi's Khadi Textile Industry towards inclusive Growth and corporate social responsibility in present scenario. Gandhi's Khadi movement was a relief programme for the poor masses living in India's villages. Spinning and weaving was elevated to an ideology for self-reliance and self government. Gandhi saw it as the end of dependency on foreign material (i.e. foreign rule) and giving a first lesson on real independence. Raw material at that time were entirely exported to England a re-imported as costly finished cloth, deriving the local population of works and profit on it. Gandhi also felt that in a country where manual labor was looked down upon. It was an occupation to bring high and low, rich and poor together, to show them the dignity of hand labor. Now, the situation of country has been drastically changed. We are second largest exporter of textile in the world. But, still the workers and labour welfare conditions and social responsibility of textile industry is incomplete to fulfilling the vision of Gandhi's Khadi movement. At present, the Modi's Government recently launched the ''Start up" and "Make in India" programme also supported by Gandhi's Khadi movement to achieve the higher economic growth, but Gandhi did not satisfied with this exclusive Economic Growth rate, he wanted inclusive growth rate without sacrificing the welfare of society and workers. At present, Textile Industry efforts are still not sufficient. So to convert weaknesses into advantages, textile firm now working on corporate social responsibility (C.S.R) is a grand panacea to all problems of textile industry
Keywords:CSR, GDP, PMSBY, PMJJBY, APY.

14. The Plight of Female Domestic Workers in Urban Amritsar

Author: Ritu Arora ,(Pages: 121-135 )

Abstract:

The National Commission on Labour (2002), while discussing the safety and protection measure for domestic workers, admitted the strong need to provide satisfactory conditions of work, genuine treatment from employers and social security benefits to domestic workers. These workers, majority of whom are females, usually belong to rural areas and as they lack any special skill, they prefer to do odd jobs at local households, with expectation of good treatment from the members of that respectable family. There are some employers, who treat them with humanity, but very often, they are treated badly. They are forced to work at nominal wages, for long hours, without adequate food and still their job has risk of uncertainity. Where these workers are working on full time basis, they are not provided with safe and clean place for doing rest. Moreover, as majority of these workers are females, they also face the risk of sexual harassment. Need of the hour is that Government and community should join hands together, to uplift their status. This is necessary in order to enable them to live with decent standard of living.
Keywords: domestic workers, employer, harassment, nominal wages, social security, uncertainity.

15. Digital Marketing Synergy for Management Integrated Functions and Operations

Author: Princi Gupta, Nidhi Singhal ,(Pages: 136-144 )

Abstract:

This research paper is mainly based on how organizations are converting them digitally. Most of organization is taking help of digital medium to run them and various departments like Human Resource, Marketing, Finance, operations are utilizining the digital power to reduce their work load and run departments smoothly. They are also finding out various alternatives for all departments to convert digitally. It can not only reduce cost of input but reduce human effort and increase efficiency and effectiveness and helps in maximum utilization of available resource. As technologies become core elements of an organization’s competitive and operational strategies, executives, technologists and business professionals cannot ignore important decisions with digital medium. This paper will put lights on how digital medium can benefit various organizational departments like: Human Resources, Finance, Operations, Marketing, Administration, Inventory Management, Quality Management
Keywords:Digital Innovation, Digital strategy, technical support, international platform, digital marketing, information technology.

16. Impact of Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana on Rural Lives: An Evaluation of Rajpura Block Meerut District

Author: Ajay Pratap Singh ,(Pages: 145-151 )

Abstract:

This paper indicates that majority of the beneficiaries 63% were SC-ST whereas female were 27%. 90% beneficiaries have no agricultural land while 53% beneficiaries were illiterate. About 55% beneficiaries accepted that employment generated from the programme fulfils the educational needs of the children. About 60% beneficiaries were satisfied with the employment generated from the programme. About 65% beneficiaries accepted that living status of their family improved with the employment generated from the programme. About 75% beneficiaries believe that SGSY is solving the problem of poverty in the country and 85% beneficiaries were agree with the concept of self help groups. Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is to bring the assisted poor families (Swarozgaris) above the poverty line by ensuring appreciable sustained level of income over a period of time. This objective is to be achieved by interalia organizing the rural poor into Self Help Groups (SHG) through the process of social Mobilization, their training and capacity building and provision of income generating assets. The SHG approach helps the poor to build their self confidence through community action.
Keywords:Swarozgaris, self-Help groups, poverty, vulnerable groups, micro-finance, unemployment

17. Indian Patent System Under Trips Agreement: Issues And Challenges

Author: D.N. Dwivedi ,(Pages: 152-160 )

Abstract:

The Patent system of any country is an important tool for technological and industrial development. It effectively protect innovation by providing incentives to the inventors and ensuring adequate returns to the industry on the investment made by it for commercialization to invention. In this regard Indian Patent Act, 1970 has strike a reasonable balance between private incentives for innovators at one hand and the societal aspirations and industrialization objectives of country of the other. This balance is, however seems to be shifting under the TRIPs and WTO constraints. The new patent system emerged throughout the world, particularly, in India in consonance with the provision to TRIPs Agreement has attempted to globlize U.S. style of patent. It has disastrous implication not only agricultural sector and pharmaceutical sector but also on democracy and sovereignty of the nation. This paper makes an humble attempt to analyse the issues relating to Indian patent system under TRIPs Agreement and concludes that the patent law should neither become instrument for exploitation nor for monopolisation
Keywords:Product Patent, Compulsory Licensing, Exclusive Marketing Rights, Sui-generis system, Plant Breeder's Rights, Terminator Technology

18. Indian Agriculture During Post Reform Period: Issues & Reforms

Author: Neena Chhokra ,(Pages: 161-168 )

Abstract:

The arrival of the New millennium has been heralded by Numerous vision documents about the Long Term Prospects of Indian economy. There is considerable anxiety about the likely course of agriculture scenario in the country, No doubt, Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. It is the most important sector of Indian economy from the Perspective of Poverty alleviation and Employment generation. “Agriculture sector accounts for about 20% of India’s National Income. The share of Agriculture in National Income has been declining from 56.5% in 1950-51 to 20% in 2009-10 while the work force engaged in a agriculture has exhibited only a marginal decline. This paper intends to study the impact of economic reforms on Indian Agriculture. This paper tries to analyze why the Agriculture sector decelerated in Post reform period. To carry out this analysis some measurements are considered and studied as the size of average yield changes, use of Agriculture inputs like Hyv, chemical fertilizer and their impact on income of Agriculturalist, the change in crop pattern. The paper also examines and explains how these changes have influenced the Indian Agriculture and, thus, tries to explain how to channelized these economic reforms so that critical issues regarding Agriculture Sector can be resolved.
Keywords:Agriculture sector, Growth Rate, Change in land yields, input and agricultural output, Electric Power Consumption Cropping Pattern.

19. The Working Conditions of Construction Labourers (Women) in Ghaziabad District

Author: Meenakshi, R. C. Lal ,(Pages: 169-178 )

Abstract:

The paper analyses the working conditions of construction labourers especially women labours of the Ghaziabad District, India. This study undertakes a survey of women construction labourers employed in various private as well as public projects in order to understand and collect data regarding their working conditions, socio economic status, safety and health and other aspects related to their work. By challenging their discursive construction as ‘unskilled’ they negotiate and interrupt the power structures or what Ong (1991: 297) calls ‘expand the space of political struggle in their everyday lives’. Here in the narrative of women’s acceptance of low wages and worse conditions of work one can see the gendered construction of women as ‘cheap’ and ‘docile’ constituting their identities as secondary workers. However, there were several instances of women’s resistance which represent disruptions to their constitution as secondary workers. This also clearly demonstrates the fragility of the boundaries of the GDL which need to be guarded by male workers as well to maintain the fiction of men as skilled and women as unskilled workers. Women work as unskilled labour and face several other difficulties in comparison to males. Sexual harassment, gender biasness, wage discrimination are the major factor due to which the working environment becomes difficult for them in the industry and women’s are remains at same level of skill even after working few number of years
Keywords:SEWA, WIEGO, ILO

20. The Study of Performance Appraisal System of “Archies Ltd.”

Author: Kanika Maheshwari ,(Pages: 179-198 )

Abstract:

Performance appraisal may be defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually take the form of a periodic interview, in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weakness and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development. In many organizations, not all appraisal results are used, either directly or indirectly, to determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses and promotions. In this paper we tried how appraisal results are used to identify the power performers who may require some form of counseling, or in extreme cases, demotion, dismissal or decrease in pay.
Keywords: appraisal, troublesome, boomerang, self-esteem.

21. Weight And Design of School Bags : A Major Concern for Parents and Schools

Author: K. Pant, H. Kaur and M. Sidhu ,(Pages: 199-206 )

Abstract:

Heavy school bags are common mode of transporting books and school supplies for school going children from kindergarten to the high school. Every year when schooling starts, children all over the world, ready to go to school are burdened with heavy bags. They pack various books, heavy stationery box, filled water bottle and meals to take during break. Some, who are scared to be scolded, takes all books to school including those which may not be needed that day. Some pack their own bags without any help from parents while others repack after their parents had packed for them for they are too afraid to miss packing any book or material. There is a growing concern these days that children are carrying too much weight on their backs. The school bag is one of the several forms of manual load carriage that provides flexibility and is often used by hikers and soldiers, as well as by school children. Therefore, this study was conducted to know that information regarding awareness for weight and design of school bags among parents and school students of Ludhiana city. It was found that most of the parents were unaware about MASW (maximum acceptable school bag weight) and only 6.67 per cent had information regarding standard MASW which is 10-15 per cent of body weight. Data further depicts that maximum number of respondents perceived their school bags heavy. Therefore, there is a great need to understand by both parents and school authority to make generous plans so that heavy school weights could not adversely affect the spinal column and other bone structures of growing children which are not fully developed
Keywords:MASW, transporting, generous plans, spinal column, bone structures

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