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International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC, Volume: 7(2018), Issue: 1(Jan-June)

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1. Evolution of Defence Offsets in India and Impact on Aerospace Industry

Author: Naresh Kumar Palta, C.G. Krishnadas Nair ,(Pages: -42 )

Abstract:

Multiple factors influence needs of defence hardware, including aircraft. Nations have utilized offsets to enhance domestic capabilities and these have become a recognized instrument by 130 countries. Many European nations have obtained 75 to 100 % offsets. Need for India to fully leverage offsets cannot be overstated. Indications are that military hardware requirement could be more than $ 200 billion till 2027. Offsets have taken time to get accepted in India, but with efforts by Aeronautical Society of India, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. and Society for Indian Aerospace Technologies and Industries (SIATI), offsets are now key in defence procurements. This study traces evolution of offsets in India and examines impact on aerospace industry. Many private companies that entered Aerospace after economic liberalisation have grown leveraging domestic projects and international sub- sourcing. These have also leveraged offsets due to the credibility created. A good number of companies entered aerospace after introduction of Offsets and have acquired offsets work to grow in technology and products. But numbers of successful companies is small. Joint Ventures by foreign OEMs is another success of Offsets. A domain Survey has brought out perceptions that Offsets have not fulfilled goal of growth. This is a pointer. Long term focus has to be on integration and platform build by requiring vendors to set up factories in India and also asking vendors to partner Indigenous programmes for energizing Make-in-India to build skills, infrastructure and investments. The Government needs to review the gaps in the policy and processes hampering rapid fulfillment of accrued offsets of $11 billion, by addressing concerns of stake- holders, and incentivize them.
Keywords:Aerospace industry, Defence Offsets, DPP, IOPs, Offsets, Make-in-India.

2. Doing Business Framework: A Case Study on Sourcing from Russia

Author: Deepanker Sinha, Ram Singh ,(Pages:43-54 )

Abstract:

Today, the countries are moving towards borderless world, enabling flow of goods and services under less restrictive environment. The extent to which the flow is free is associated with different dimensions of “openness to trade” by different countries. These dimensions are broadly classified under tariff and non-tariff barrier for goods and services and General Agreement for Trade in Services (GATS) for services. However, goods not only move exclusively under buyer-seller transaction (that is exporting-importing mode), but also through buyer’s originating their supplies to their country by setting up of business (as subsidiary, own company or joint ventures) in the sellers’ country. This refers to buyers’ setting up business in sellers’s country to ensure an un-inhibited flow of goods. This is feasible based on the extent of ease of doing business (EODB) in a particular country. So far, the dimensions associated with EODB have been laid down by the World Bank, especially to measure the rank of each country in EODB. In this paper, a systematic literature review of the relevant dimensions has been carried out. The results show that EODB index computed by the World Bank misses out many of the salient dimensions. The study has been extended to compare Russia with India in the proposed framework incorporating all significant dimensions.
Keywords:Doing Business Framework, Sourcing, GATS, EODB Countertrade

3. Role of Primary Agricultural Co-operative Credit Societies in Agricultural Services (A Case Study of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu)

Author: R. Sreedevi, S. Murugan,(Pages: 55-62)

Abstract:

Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. It is the bedrock and foundation of all efforts for economic development and planning in India. Primary Agricultural Co-operative credit societies are an important constituent in the field of agriculture. Primary Agricultural co-operative Credit Societies lie at the root of the co-operative credit structure of the country. The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Societies (PACCS) in providing the services and members’ perception about their quality. The necessary information was collected both from the primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected from the secretaries and the members of the PACCS through a designed questionnaire. Besides this, personal interviews were also conducted with the presidents and the secretaries of the PACCS to know their opinions about the functioning of these societies. To asses the quality of services provided by the PACCS, the perception of the members about their services was collected. For this purpose, a sample of 50 members was selected in each of the PACCS based on the land owned, amount of loan taken, type of services, level of education, etc. by using the random sampling technique. The findings of the study will help to identify the members’ perception towards the services of PACCS. The study also mention some suggestions for the effective working of PACCS in rendering more qualitative services for the members.
Keywords:PACCS, Agriculture, Credit, Loans, Borrowers, Members, Kanyakumari.

4. A Study on the Changing Recent Trends in the Flow of Foreign Direct Investment in India

Author: P. Alekhya,(Pages: 63-69)

Abstract:

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is considered as an engine of economic growth. This paper analyses the sector-wise and country-wise inflows of FDI during the period 2012-2017. This study concludes that, the sectors that attracted higher inflows were Communication services as per the CAGR and as per the share it is manufacture sector. The British Virgin Islands was at highest FDI inflows as per the CAGR and as per the share it is from Mauritius.
Keywords:FDI, GDP, CAGR, NIP.

5. Impact of Demonetization on Different Sectors of Indian Economy: An Exploratory Study

Author: Sukanta Kundu,(Pages: 70-79)

Abstract:

The ‘demon’ in demonetization is in the beginning. Any Government withdraws the legal tender rights of any denomination of currency, it is called demonetization. Demonetization announced on 8th November 2016 was aimed at addressing black money, corruption, counterfeit currency and terror financing. The initial effects of demonetization on common people was terrible. According to Fisher’s Quantity Theory of Money in the short run, money supply will fall, demand will be sluggish and people will lose jobs. The latest Central Statistical Organization (CSO) estimates suggest that the impact of demonetization on Gross value added (GVA) growth was modest. Food inflation declined significantly. Demonetization has made impact on some segments of the export sector such as readymade garments, gems and jewellery. There has been a significant improvement in the use of digital modes of payments post demonetization. This paper articulates the impact of demonetization on various sectors of the Indian economy.
Keywords:Demonetization, Digitalisation, Cash Crunch ,Cashless Transaction CSO, GVA.

6. Understanding the Impact of the Variables Determining Loyalty Status of Fans Belonging to Three Psychographic Profiles : Experienced, Strugglers and Strivers w.r.t. IPL Franchises

Author: Khan Ashfaq Ahmad, Farida S. Virani,(Pages: 80-87)

Abstract:

The current research was carried out to understand the various variables that create brand loyalty for IPL franchises and also to understand their dependence with three psychographic segments i.e. strivers, strugglers and experiencers, a focus group discussion was carried out to understand the variables which create brand loyalty, the results revealed that star players, excitement and attachment are the three variables which create fan loyalty. These variables were then cross tabulated with three psychographic segments and then hypothesis testing was carried out using a chi square test of independence. The results from the testing of the hypothesis revealed that the two variables i.e. types of segments and feel high are significantly dependent on each other and the results of second hypothesis revealed that the two variables i.e. types of segments and Merchandise association are independent of each other.
Keywords:Psychographic segmentation, Chi square test of Independence, IPL.

7. Challenges and Developments in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Review of Kanpur Leather Industry in India

Author: Rais Ahmed, Mohammad Hasan,(Pages: 88-95)

Abstract:

SME sector in India, especially leather clusters at Kanpur serve as an important employment and GDP generating industry. Despite numerous initiatives undertaken by government for developing this sector, the industry is still facing losses due to allegations of generating environmental pollution. The alarming situation of Kanpur leather industry demands a serious attention both from scholars and government bodies. This paper aims to describe and categorize various issues, challenges and developments in the SME sector in India and leather industry at Kanpur in particular. The paper reviews developments from various SMEs studies and suggests initiatives that can be adopted in the leather industry at Kanpur. The methodology adopted in this paper is to review articles on SME sector and leather industry and categorize the problems and developments in a thematic manner. This paper can provide significant knowledge for understanding the declining situation of Kanpur Leather Industry and can spread awareness among the academia to further research on this topic.
Keywords:Leather Industry, Kanpur, Tannery, SME, Pollution.

8. The Impact of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) on Customer Loyalty (A Study of Public Sector Banks in Moradabad District)

Author: K. C. Gupta, Nikhil Ranjan Agarwal,(Pages: 96-106)

Abstract:

CRM is basically a methodology and software that helps an enterprise to manage its customer relationships in an efficient way. CRM includes all business processes like sales, marketing and service that serve the customer in everyday business activities. In the competitive business environment, customer has become an important constituent for success. Therefore, this paper focuses on determining the impact of CRM on customer loyalty. This paper has noticed that banks words and promises are reliable and the bank is fulfilling its obligation towards the customers. It is offering them valuable advice on how to invest. It is the prominent variable which has impact on customer loyalty. So the banking sector needs to focus more on these factors, thereby increasing customer loyalty. Hence the concept of CRM may be emphasized so that the customers are treated royalty in relation to banking services. Therefore, the banks need to improve customer satisfaction in the utilization of various modern banking services and must provide more customer friendly services to make modern banking activity a delight for the customer.
Keywords:CRM, Customer Loyalty, Public Sector Banks, Multiple Regression and Factor Analysis.

9. An Evaluation of Participative Management in Public Sector Undertakings (A Case Study of NTPC Ltd., Dadri)

Author: Arvind Kumar Yadav,(Pages: 107-117)

Abstract:

Participative Management is an extension of this political process to work place relations. Keeping in view the democratic way of working, Participative Management has become a mandatory situation in developed and developing countries. The concept of Participative Management is based on Human Relations approach to Management which brought about a new set of values to labour and management. Traditionally the concept of Participative Management refers to participation of non-managerial employees in the decision-making process of the organization. The scheme of Participative Management was implemented in the first instance in manufacturing and mining industries whether in the public, private or co-operative sectors. These included factories where there was no manufacturing and only the unit was departmentalized. The scheme applied to those industries where 500 or more workers working on rolls. The concept of Participative Management is viewed by people differently. “There are people who feel that participative management is the tool for solving most industrial relations problems, and that it will even become the underline concept of the future society. So people use the term as the synonym for what they call Industrial Democracy”. It is now agreed that genuine Workers’ Participation in day to day working of the organization can lead to harmony and higher productivity besides being able to bring out hidden talents in employees and giving the employees an acceptable status. A combination of powerful social, cultural, political, economic and industrial pressures has created world-wide demand for greater participation and democracy. Participative Management is only one of the outcomes of this global trend. In this research paper, evaluated participative management in NTPC Ltd. Dadri has been study. This is a unique power plant of NTPC group which has both coal based thermal plant and gas based thermal plant. Also evaluated various committees form in NTPC, Dadri for effecti
Keywords:NTPC,Public Sector

10. An Analysis of White Collar Crime in India: A Study

Author: Deepa Singh, Praksh Gopalan,(Pages: 118-127)

Abstract:

In uncivilized society there was no criminal law “A tooth for a tooth, an eye for an eye, a life for a life” was the forerunner of criminal justice. The Indian penal code, 1860 also deal with white collar crimes. This is the earliest comprehensive and codified criminal law of India. It deals with many white collar crimes and punishment is provided for the same. Analysis of specific laws on White Collar Crime (W.C.C.) deals with analysis of specific Act on W.C.C. besides the Indian designed to deal with W.C.C. judicial attitude towards white collar crimes deals with attitude of Judiciary towards these crimes numerous judgments delivered by Supreme Court and various High Courts on different facts of W.C.C. have been analyzed. “Evaluation of actual enforcement of laws relating to W.C.C. in the state of Punjab” deals with evaluation of actual enforcement of the laws relating to white collar crimes in Punjab. The enforcement of laws relating to W.C.C. has been judged by analysing the secondary data.
Keywords:White Collar Crimes, Corporate Crime, Corporation Criminology, Financial frame.

11. Global Issues and Challenges in Management Education for Industry and Academia

Author: Ishan Kaushik, R. K. Singhal,(Pages: 128-136)

Abstract:

“By education I mean all round drawing out of the best in child and man- body, mind and spirit”. - Mahatma Gandhi The term ‘education’ has a very wide connotation. Philosophers and thinkers from Yajnavalkya to Gandhiji and from Socrates to Dewey have given the meaning of education. The concept of education is like a diamond which appears different color when seen from a different angle. Some changes have take place come about suddenly and have a world wide impact. The changes that have influenced global economics and politics have also affected education. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of management education, it is often difficult to define. During the 1980s, Management educators used surveys to determine the needs for management education programs. Educators recommended that managerial endeavors focus not only on awareness, but also on attitudes, skill development and citizenship participation in managerial problem solving. A need was indicated by teachers for a new curriculum on all academic levels to address the goals on management education. Through this paper authors define the major issues and challenges that seem to be present in the way of management education.
Keywords:Skill Development, Citizens Participation in Management, New Curriculum.

12. Employee Turnover and Measures to Control

Author: Kanika Maheshwari,(Pages: 137-143)

Abstract:

Employee turnover is a serious problem for managers who wish to retain important and talented employees. The high costs associated with recruiting, selecting, and training new employees can hurt the bottom line of businesses. This article is on employee turnover to deduce and analyze five key factors which continuously arise throughout that literature which explain why employees often voluntarily leave their jobs. These five key factors are: a lack of training; an employer not fostering a sense of purpose for the employee at work; inadequate tools or resources from the organization; an insufficient compensation or benefits package; and shocks which influence an employee to impulsively leave his or her job. Managerial strategies are discussed in terms of these five key factors that cause employee turnover in order to highlight solutions that supervisors/managers can institute to reduce the number of employees leaving their jobs.
Keywords:Complacency, Accessions, Exiters, Buffering.

13. E-Marketing with Reference to Amazon

Author: Rekha Garg ,(Pages: 144-153)

Abstract:

On July 5, 1995 the founder of Amazon Jeff Bezos initially incorporated a company with the name Cadabra. Bezos changed the name to Amazon.com after a few minutes later. The company began as an online bookstore. Amazon was incorporated in Washington State in 1994. In July 1995, the company began service and sold its first book on Amazon.com Amazon issued its initial public offering of stock on May 15 1997, trading under the NASDAQ stock exchange symbol AMAZN. In 1999, Time Magazine named Bezos the person of the year when it recognized the company’s success in popularising online shopping. Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale. Amazon is the world’s largest net company by revenue.
Keywords:E-marketing, Amazon

14. A Report on Textile Industry, Problem and Measure

Author: Neel Rai, Rajeev Sijariya,(Pages: 154-163)

Abstract:

India is replete with natural resources like cotton, jute and silk. Indian products were known for fine designing, embellishment and craft. Besides this, the ancient Indian fabric designers and weavers were one of the best in the world (Reference: The Dhaka Muslin-one of finest and light weight weaving that could pass through a finger ring). The Indian Textile Industry contributes approximately 2% to India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 10% of manufacturing production and 14% to overall Index of Industrial Production (IIP). Indian textile Industry is completely self reliant in the entire value-chain from cotton crop to Hi-fashion garment making. Industry is facing problem due to the high cost of finance, high labour cost (compared with CHINA, competition from other country, recession, etc. The authors have study and explore the area where Textile industry is facing problem in the export and try to analyze the competitors in the market and also examined the are where the industry is facing problem with international market.
Keywords:Textile Industry, Handloom Industry.

15. Demonetization: A Step against Black Money (With Special Reference to Counterfeit Money)

Author: Jyoti Khare,(Pages: 164-171)

Abstract:

The government, from time to time, formulates fiscal policies that are meant to spur economic growth. A lot of black money circulates in the economy, because the sources of income are not known to the government and that are also unaccounted. For removing the black money, a multifaceted policy is needed. Demonetisation is a step that combats this problem up to great extent. By demonetization counterfeit notes could be assessed. To mop up this money out of circulation, the government can demonetize so that the money holders are forced to deposit the cash with the banks or lose their wealth. Through this paper, it has tried to understand that how demonetization strategy works in detecting the black money as counterfeiting money, forgery and money laundering activities. PTI stated on 30 August, 2017 “with over Rs. 15 lakh crore of junked currency coming back into the banking system post demonetization.’’ And for Indian economy that is primarily cash transaction based economy, removing 86% of the money in circulation is indeed a brave step taken by government.
Keywords:Demonetization, Black Money, Counterfeit currency.

16. Accounting Standards and Financial Reporting in India

Author: Sweta Dixit,(Pages: 172-182)

Abstract:

There is a growing international agreement on the International Financial Reporting Standards as suitable standards for assessment of the financial health of a company across the globe. Globalization has laid down a way for all the countries to adopt a single set of accounting standards. Recent years have seen major changes in financial reporting worldwide under which the most obvious is the continuing adoption of international financial reporting standards universal. Financial reporting in India is undergoing an important change due to the adoption of Indian accounting Standards (Ind AS) that are converged with International financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The notification of these IFRS converged standards fills up significant gaps that exist in the current accounting guidance, and India can claim to have financial reporting standards that are contemporary and virtually at par with the leading global standards. This will, in turn, improve India’s place in global rankings on corporate governance and transparency in financial reporting. Around 150 countries have already adopted IFRS in their economy. But in India, Ministry of corporate affairs has decided to go for full convergence of IFRS by 2018 through IND AS. The present paper deals with the status of IFRS adoption in India.
Keywords:IFRS, Financial Reporting, IAS, ASB, ICAI, SEBI.

17. An Analysis of Recent Digital India Programmes

Author: V.N. Gupta, Rupak Srivastava,(Pages: 183-190)

Abstract:

The term Digital India is made India literate in the sense of digital awareness by using paper less work. It is too important for rapid economic and digital literacy growth. India is developing country, in this competitive world the developing country has also need to make the nation by using modern techniques of digitalization. This paper deals with various programmes related with making India Digital.
Keywords:Digital India, E-governance.

18. Hindrances in Fertilizers Marketing (A Comparative Study)

Author: S. K. Rastogi, Meenu Anand,(Pages: 191-209)

Abstract:

Fertilizers are considered as main input in agriculture. The purpose of fertilizer marketing is that the product which is produced reach the right place at right time with minimum costs. This research paper identifies the constraints in fertilizers marketing. For this purpose cluster sampling is done and the data is collected through schedule. A comparative study is done between private dealers & cooperatives in both the Tarai zone & Plane zone.
Keywords:Green Revolution, Fertilizer marketing.

19. Analysis of Consumer Behaviour Regarding Automobile Passenger Car Buyers in Meerut Region

Author: Mohit Saharan, R.K. Singhal,(Pages: 210-220)

Abstract:

The car business in today’s scenario is the most lucrative and growing industry. This is because of increment in discretionary cash flow in both country and urban part and accessibility of simple fund and are the primary drivers of high volume in auto sector. Assist rivalry is warming up with host of new players coming in and world-wide brands like Porsche, Bentley, Ford, BMW, Mercedes and Ferrari all set to wander in Indian market. This examination will be useful for the current and new participants in auto fabricating organizations in India to discover the client desires and their market offerings. Meerut region auto business is impacted by the presence of numerous national and multinational car makers. This paper an presents investigation of Consumer Behavior of Automobile Car in Meerut region. Appropriate comprehension of buyer purchasing conduct will help the advertiser to prevail in the market. All fragments in Meerut urban car industry were examined and found that purchaser has diverse need of practices in every section, whereas fundamental driver for auto buy is extra cash. Esteem for cash, wellbeing and driving solaces best the rank regarding client necessity; though saw quality by clients chiefly relies upon brand picture. For this examination we concentrate the exploration paper in Passenger Car fragment, concentrate on the buyers’ choice process and its connection with conduct parameters over every one of the portions of auto, for example, little and Hatch Back section, Sedan class portion, SUV and MUV portion and Luxury Car portion. The goal of this paper is to identify elements impacting client's inclinations for specific fragment of four wheelers. This paper endeavors to combine discoveries and proposals to conquer display situation of stagnancy in deals and develop future interest for car auto showcase.
Keywords:Consumer behavior, Small Car, Sedan, Customer Perception, Luxury Car segment, Automobile Industry.

20. Gender Neutrality at Entry Level Job in the Indian ICT Industry

Author: Surabhi Yadav,(Pages: 221-238)

Abstract:

The surfacing of Information Technology sector in mid-1990s has disclosed a potential employment opportunity for women in this organized sector pleasantly be suitable their job environment and offering, in principle, least gender discrimination. This paper attempts to analyze the issues of opportunities and constraints the women employees face in the ICT sector in India. IT sector, through its initial job employment, contributes significantly to women empowerment. Its employment potentiality provides inspiration to female students to take up technical and professional courses with an eye to the ICT sector. I have explored gender neutrality at the initial job level in ICT sector with the help of unstructured questionnaire. I have used X2 test for the Neutrality. The theoretical aspect of individualization in the workplace is flagrant but at the societal level, patriarchal strategies dominate on the Indian mind. The reflection of this paper is arrived at, on the basis of, the inputs drawn from different literatures of ICT sector such as NASSCOM.
Keywords:Gender, Neutrality, Initial Job, Software Sector and ICT.

21. Inventory Control Policy with Pricing and Stock Dependent Demand: Latest Trend

Author: Ashok Kumar,(Pages: 239-248)

Abstract:

Inventory is the physical stock of items held in any business for the purpose of future production or sales. In a production shop, the inventory may be in the form of raw materials. When the items are in production process, we have the inventory as work in-process inventory and at the end of the production cycle: the inventory is in the form of finished goods. An inventory management helps a lot in optimizing the inventory. It helps in maintaining the inventory in adequate quantity and supplying the same at desired timings. As we know that 2/3 of the capital of the organization blocks in the form of Inventory. So, ever manager of the organization try to develop different inventory policies to increase the profit of the organization. Pricing policy and stock dependent demands is the key policies through which manager increases the demand and hence makes the profit for the system. In this paper, latest work in the field of inventory control for pricing policy and stock dependent demand are presented.
Keywords:Inventory, Pricing Policy, Stock dependent demand

22. Effects of Socio Factors on Working Women in Banking Industry (A Comparative Study of Public and Private Sector Banks)

Author: S.K. Agarwal, Ms. Jyoti Singhal,(Pages: 249-263)

Abstract:

In this era of high competition, success of any organization depends on its human resource. Banks are no exception to this. Being happy, reliable and satisfied employee are very important aspects for any employee in the organization. Productivity and Profitability are highly dependent on the personnel of the Organization. Efficient human resource management and maintaining higher job satisfaction level in banks determine not only the performance of the bank but also affect the growth and performance of the entire nation So, for the success of banking, it is very important to manage human resource efficiently and to find whether its employees are satisfied or not. Only if they are satisfied, they will work with commitment and portray a positive image of the organization. This research focuses on studying and comparing the factors affecting job satisfaction of women employees in Public and Private Sector banks. The study is purely exploratory in nature and seeks to identify those socio factors effecting women employees personal and professional life in banking sector with the help of doing a comparative study between public and private sector banks. Further, this aims also at finding out the various measures and methods adopted by the public and private sector banks for the betterment of the personal and professional life of women employees working in banks. Total six Banks has been taken namely PNB, SBI Syndicate bank, ICICI, HDFC and Axis Bank. These are having three public sector banks and three private sector banks.
Keywords:Socio factors, job satisfaction, Role of women, women in banking industry, working women.

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