Society for Global
Studies and Research

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Dr. S.K.S. Yadav
Department of Commerce
Meerut College, Meerut
U.P. (India)


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List of Volumes/Issues

International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC, Volume: 9(2020>), Issue: 1(Jan-June)

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1. Mainstreaming Human Rights in Emergency Management: Views from the COVID-19 Pandemic Management in Nigeria

Author: Ngboawaji Daniel Nte, Oluka Nduka Lucas, Michael C. Uzorka, Baba- Ahmadu Abdulaziz,(Pages: 01- 12)


Globally periods of emergencies, disasters and crises require desperate responses from the state no matter the type of government. However, the most widely accepted democratic order has in it, some inalienable rights and principles no matter the prevailing situation. Whilst advanced democracies the world over have made concerted efforts to ensure the protection of the rights of the entire citizenry in the course the management of the current rampaging Covid 19 pandemic, the same can’t be said about such transitional democracies like Nigeria. The preponderance of gory images of arrant brutality by security personnel in India, Nigeria etc. speaks volumes. The paper therefore seeks to provide a useful and working paradigm to ensure that the inalienable rights of citizens during the management of global pandemics such as the current Covid 19 must be respected and guaranteed as the hallmark of modern society.
Keywords:Mainstreaming, Pandemic, Emergency, Nigeria, Human Rights

2. Impact of COVID -19 Outbreak on SSIs: A Study of Jamnagar District of Gujarat

Author: Bhavik Panchasara, Heena Bharadia,(Pages: 13-20)


Covid 19 pandemic has affected entire world. Many countries, including India have adopted the safest and easiest way of lockdown as an emergency step to prevent the pandemic. Lockdown has worse impact over almost every sectors of the economy. One of the most critical impact of lockdown is on small scale industries (SSIs) and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India. SSIs and SMEs are the sector providing maximum employment as well as considerable share in GDP of the country. This paper analysis the impact of Covid 19 pandemic over SSIs operating in Jamnagar District of Gujarat. A structured questionnaire is prepared to get the response from the owners of the SSIs to map the financial impact, production impact, cost impact etc. for their enterprises. The result of the study reveals that the SSI sector is considerably affected due to lockdown and that will take a long time to recover.
Keywords:Covid 19, Outbreak, Pandemic, SSIs, SMEs, economy, India

3. Economic Epidemics in India and Its Negative Effects through the COVID-19

Author: Kanak Lata,(Pages: 21-26)


The world economy is going through an unprecedented global recession due to the outbreak and lockdown of the coronavirus epidemic in the corona period. It is feared that in the coming time the world may go into a worse state than the resolution of 1929. In this sequence, this economic epidemic in India is also causing a double crisis in the country. Due to this epidemic, the demand and supply chain in India has deteriorated badly. The decline in demand for food items and other essential items shows that the purchasing power of the common man of the country has decreased. Normally the cycle of economic activity starts with production and the producing people are paid in salary and with that money they buy goods from the market which promotes the economic activity of the market which leads to the sale of the product from which the sale Impressed entrepreneurs produce more as a result, there is an increase in employment and purchasing power. The lockdown has caused a major loss to the supply chain in the country, the transportation shutdown has disrupted the movement of goods from production to the market, leading to an increase in black marketing and inflation so that the closure of freight, vegetables, fruits and other crops from the fields Are getting wasted The farmers are facing a big crisis if they do not get the right price for the crop. The economic epidemic caused by Coronavirus where urban poverty, migrant labor crisis, declining employment of unorganized sector, closure of production cycle, pathetic condition of areas like hotels, tourism, airlines, real estate, The weakening stock market and finance sector and the increasing health challenges of the government etc. have created a long-term crisis before the Indian economy; On the other hand, India also provides an opportunity for proper management of its rural economy and self-reliance of young population benefits.
Keywords:global recession, coronavirus epidemic, economic epidemic, unorganized sector, production cycle, self-reliance.

4. Effects of Covid-19 on the Economy

Author: Daya Mary Mathew, S. Ancy, J. Aruna Jasmine ,(Pages: 27-34 )


A health hazard is a condition of a premises, a substance, thing, plant or animal other than man, or a solid, liquid, gas or combination of any of them, that has or that is likely to have an adverse effect on the health of any person. With the steep increase in COVID -19 cases not only in India but all over the world, this disease caused by the novel corona virus has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Such a situation was last faced by the humans on earth more than a 100 years ago during the Spanish Influenza. It has brought our life to a halt and forced us to ponder about a lot of things. It has brought several industries to a standstill and has also brought substantial trade deficit for India.
Keywords:Covid-1, Economy, Aviation sector, Agriculture, the hospitality and tourism

5. Impact of COVID-19 on Defence Industry with Special Reference to India

Author: Mohd. Rizwana,Mohammad Saqib,(Pages: 35-42)


This is paper is an attempt to understand the impact of COVID-19 on Defence Industry. Starting with Chinas Wuhan, the coronavirus has caused havoc in India as well. This has led to a lock-down in India, this has significantly affected the industries and has weakened Indias economy. Companies related to defence sector have also been affected and defence equipment manufacturing is almost closed. This research also studies what will happen to the defence industry after the lock-down ends. Because this area is not connected to the basic needs of humans, therefore its direct impact on humans is not visible but this sector has a huge contribution to the economy. The poor economy can be managed by enriching this industry
Keywords:COVID-19, Defence Industry, Economic Crisis, Lockdown

6. *Corresponding Author doi:10.46333/ijtc/9/1/6 A Study on Impact of Corona Virus (COVID - 19) on Education System in Reference of E-Education

Author: Gaurav Goyal, Vertika Agarwal, Deepa Gupta,(Pages: 43-56)


The petrifying and severe impact of COVID-19 has shaken the world to its core. Due to which most of the Governments around the world have temporarily closed educational institutions in an attempt to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. In India too, the government as a part of the nationwide lockdown has closed all educational institutions, as a consequence of which, learners ranging from school going children to postgraduate students, are affected. Therefore, the government has come up with e-learning program. Nevertheless, Covid-19 has prompted experts to rethink the conventional mode of education. More importantly, it has also brought the hitherto peripheral issue of digital education in India to the centre stage. As well, it will provide an opportunity for educators to come up with customized learning solutions for every student. Digital learning has many advantages in itself like digital learning has no physical boundaries, it has more learning engagement experience rather than the traditional learning, it is also cost-effective and students get to learn in the confines of their comfort zone. However, digital learning is not without its limitations and challenges, since face-to-face interaction is usually perceived as the best form of communication as compared to the rather impersonalized nature of remote learning.
Keywords:Online Education, Digital Learning Platforms.

7. A Critical Analysis of Covid-19 Impact on Unorganized Sector in Indian Economy

Author: Saleha,(Pages: 57-65)


The coronavirus pandemic arises as huge shock to the labour market in India, hitting the employment situation and threatening the existence and survival of millions of workers and their families. In India there are so many small and big industries comprising un organized sectors in which large portion of total work force is engaged ,but it is very difficult to organize them, , nor can their data be collected related to how many people are working in these sectors in India and how much they have income and how they live their lives, despite the Government of India providing financial help to millions of laborers and farmers, these people could not get financial help because there is no systematic data for their identification of these people in India. Absence of job security, no paid leave, or improper job contract makes them exposed to severe difficulties of the labour market. Unorganized sector shall lead to a state of destitution, hunger, starvation and even death, if not protected with an immediate social safety net. According to the latest investigation of the Centre For Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), the inclusive rate of unemployment has increased from 8.4 percent to 23.8 percent in the week ending 29 March 2020.Covid-19 has not proved to played havoc as health crises but also as a financial crises in all over the world. In India the number of unemployed people has risen from 32 million to 38 million in total, in which 30 percent comprises from urban and 21 percent from rural areas. The objective of this paper is to focus attention on the vulnerability of the unprivileged workers from the unorganized sectors of the country.
Keywords:Covid-19, corona virus, unorganized sector, unemployment, CMIE, Labour market and migrants.

8. Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Indian Agriculture

Author: Poonam Chaudhary, Satyandra Kumar (,(Pages: 66-71)


India is the country of villages and major part of the population lives in rural areas. Agriculture and its related services are the major source of livelihood of this population. In the past few decades agriculture sector was reduced and it became a hidden unemployment of farmers and its dependent workers. The price hike in agriculture equipments, pesticides and other essential things, low price of crops, cost of living of villagers are some major problems of farmers. The income of farmers and working labours is unorganized and with very slow growth rate. The cultivation of crops and income of workers depend on seasonal regimes and natural disasters. There are many examples of natural disasters and various types of pandemics had destructed the life of these workers in last decades. All these problems caused migration of workers from rural areas to urban centers in search of better employment. This increases the load of unorganized workers or population in cities. Recently Covid-19 pandemic affected the life of each and every person in most of the part of globe. It was very severely affected the life of unorganized labour in urban areas and caused a large scale migration of workers from urban to rural areas. This migration increased the population load and unemployment in rural areas. Present study reveals the post covid-19 pandemic effect on agriculture related unorganized workers and farmers during 2019-2020.
Keywords:Agriculture, unorganized workers, migration, seasonal regimes, agriculture equipments, pesticides.

9. Covid-19 and Its Impact on Indian Economy

Author: Shubhi Agarwal, Archna Singh,(Pages: 72-79)


COVID-19 is a disease caused by a new strain of Coronavirus. CO stands for corona, VI for virus and D for disease. This research paper focuses on impact of the outbreak of pandemic Covid-19 on Indian Economy. Covid-19 makes adverse impact on many sectors of Indian Economy. This paper depicts the impact of Covid-19 on different sectors of Indian Economy. This paper also furnishes the policy framework of government in this regard. This paper also gives a light on those sectors which see a boost due to outbreak of covid-19.
Keywords:Covid-19, Indian Economy, Pandemic

10. Covid-19 and Financial Markets of Indian Economy- A Review

Author: K.R. Jain, Nimisha Verma,(Pages:80-84)


This research paper focuses on the effect of corona pandemic on the financial markets of Indian economy. The pandemic has created unpredictable situation for stock markets globally. Business performances have been adversely affected. Absence of proper vaccination to this contagious disease has created havoc worldwide. To control the death rates rising out of this virus, social distancing and self quarantine methods were adopted so as to have least possible contact with the disease. All the states and the central government have issued the orders to stay at home leading to the slowdown of the Indian financial market and temporary closure of the establishments till the lockdown period. It has turned to a disruptive financial condition which demands government and regulatory bodies for policies which can help to overcome financial loss. This paper highlights the uncertain situation and macro factors affecting the economy. Literature has been reviewed in order to provide insights to the effects of pandemic on economy. It has also highlighted various packages adopted by the Central government in order to cope up with such an alarming situation.
Keywords:Covid-19, Financial Markets, Pandemic and WHO

11. Effects of Post COVID 19 on Indian Economy

Author: Rekha Garg ,(Pages:85-89 )


An outbreak of COVID-19 impacted the whole world. The outbreak is declared as a national Emergency by the World Health Organization. In India the three major contributors to GDP Namely private consumption, investment and external trade will all get affected. World and Indian economy are attempting to mitigate the health risks of COVID-19 with the economic risks and necessary measures needed will be taken to improve it. The government has put in place Restrictions on expenditure in a bid to save resources. Funds are being diverted towards the Fight against Covid-19. According to the survey, COVID-19 is having a deep impact on Indian businesses, Over the coming months jobs are at high risk because firms are looking for some Reduction in manpower. Further, it is added that already COVID-19 crisis has caused an Unprecedented collapse in economic activities.
Keywords:National Emergency, Covid-19.

12. Post Covid-19: Effects on Automobile Sector in India

Author: Vaishali Siddhu,(Pages: 90-96)


The pandemic Covid-19 has hard hitted the global economy and it’s after effects are distressing as expected. Every major country of world has suffered in multiple ways, India also suffered a lot . Automobile sector of India has witnessed heavy losses owing to the outbreak of novel corona virus and the resultant lockdown. It was even before covid-19 , the automobile industry of India is going through a tough phase due to new BSVI norms enforced by the government of India. And now when the whole world is under the influence of the pandemic Indian automobile market is facing slump situation. Economy as a whole is in crises, automobile sector which is already battling for it’s revival , has faced a lot of challenges like complete shutdown of manufacturing, disrupted supply, a major reduction in imported inputs, significant downfall in domestic and export demands etc. It is quite obvious that the effect of this pandemic will be severe and long lasting. A study shown with the whole nation being under a lockdown throughout April, automotive sales for the month came to a grinding halt. Leading companies, Maruti Suzuki and Mahindra have reported zero sales for the opening month of FY2020.
Keywords:automobile, pandemic, coronavirus, auto sales, lockdown

13. Covid-19 Impact on the Indian Economy: A Review of Uttarakhands Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Sector

Author: K.R. Jain, Anuja Dhyani,(Pages: 97-101)


This study examines the impact of COVID-19 on the Indian Economy with reference to travel, tourism and hospitality sector in Uttarakhand. The outbreak of corona virus in China shook the world due to its adverse impact on the global economy. The corona virus pandemic is leading a massive disruption in the economy of the country. Key sectors continue to be spooked by the outbreak. Supply chain disruptions apart, lack of demand is affecting sales of mobile phones, electronics and automotives. India went through elongated country-wide lockdown to combat the pandemic by restricting movement of its people. These lockdown directly affected the travel industry like aviation, rail and road transport. This further adversely affected the hospitality sector. From big hotel to small businesses like restaurants, SPAs, beauty parlors and street food vendors have been shattered by the double blow of the pandemic and the lockdown. This research paper highlights the measures taken by the Government of India to tackle the set-back on travel, tourism and hospitality sector.
Keywords:COVID-19,Corona virus, Economic Downturn, Hospitality, Indian Economy, Lockdown, Outbreak, Pandemic, Social Distancing, Supply Chain, Tourism, Travel.

14. Effect of COVID 19 on Various Sectors

Author: Asha Rathi, Ashok Kumar,(Pages: 102-110)


As we as a whole realize that, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has tainted many individuals ascourge standing up to the entirety of mankind, affecting ways of life, organizations, economies, and the supposition of basic prosperity that we all have to a great extent underestimated. Indeed, even before the beginning of this pandemic, the worldwide economy was standing up to choppiness because of interruptions in exchange streams and debilitated development. The circumstance has now been inciting by the interest, gracefully and liquidity stuns that COVID-19 has dispensed. When the pandemic is controlled, the shape and speed of the recuperation in India will be key factor deciding the nature and footing of worldwide financial recuperation. It is our desire as of now that the course of financial recuperation in India will be smoother and quicker than that of numerous other propelled nations. To be sure, the UNCTAD in its most recent report The COVID-19 stun to Developing Countries has anticipated that significant economies least presented to downturn would be China and India. While we are currently concentrating in India on making sure about the populace from wellbeing dangers and on giving help, exceptionally to poor people, we likewise need to think long haul measures - to make sure about the strength of the economy, the suitability of organizations, and the employments of individuals. Aside from giving security nets to the helpless, guaranteeing work congruity and employment creation is critical and there is an earnest need to prepare assets to animate the economy. This article is an endeavor to investigate the present COVID-19 pandemic circumstance and its impacts on different segments of India with the assistance of optional information.
Keywords:COVID-19, Global Economy, Pandemic, Impact, Long-Term Measures, Indian Economy

15. Creativity and Entrepreneurship: Complementing each other to Create Success Stories

Author: P.N. Tiwari, Namita Verma,(Pages: 111-120)


A creative idea can change the world but to do this it will have to be nurtured by an entrepreneur who can judge the potential of the idea and assess the risks involved. It will have to be groomed. It will have to go through trials. It will have to be implemented by some managers who will guide the team handling the implementation of the idea so that it can see the light of the day. In a nutshell the idea will always require finance, investment, research and management to become a success.
Keywords:Creativity, Entrepreneurship, business, investment, risk.

16. A Case Study of Performance of ICICI Pru. Life Insurance Co. Ltd.

Author: Rupa Gupta,(Pages: 121-127)


Till 1999, the LIC of India has a monopoly in the insurance sector, but after the constitution of IRDA, many private Insurance companies came into this field. ICICI Pru. Life Insurance Co. Ltd. is a giant co. I am working in the private sector. It was set up by 24 Nov. 2000. Since 2000, it has been performing well and maintaining the No. 1 position as a private insurer in the insurance sector. In this research paper, the Performance of ICICI Pru. Life Insurance Co. Ltd. has been analyzed through a measure of technical insolvency and growth to check out the reason behind its successful journey.
Keywords:ICICI Pru. Life Insurance Co. Ltd, IRDA.

17. A Study of Investment Behaviour about Middle-Class Group Families towards Different Types of Opportunities

Author: Riyazuddin,(Pages: 128-138)


Economy of our country is increasing rapidly among the countries of world where 1.3 Billion people and middle group covers 45% of the population. The remaining 59% people come under poor category and 1% in rich category. The middle group is divided into lower and higher. Lower middle group family income is less than 25000 per month and the upper middle class earn 50k to 150k monthly (As on 2018-19). Middle group population is the vital component for Indian economic development. They effect demand and supply of need and comfort products at a great extent. Their saving and investment shape gets influenced by their predicted needs for future; provide extensive scope for researchers due to larger impact on the investment bazaar. Through this research paper, researcher throws the light on investment behaviour adopted by middle group families, included groups associated in either service or business, whose income exist between two lakhs to five lakhs p.a. main purpose of selecting certain income group is to know that how to manage their investment avenues with small or limited income after spend their all expense. The reason of this study is to find out answer of some genuine questions for their choices of investment’s instruments in money market and capital market, real estate, commodity market, derivatives market etc., investment pattern implemented in a definite manner and objectives behind selecting a certain investment’s instrument. Investment is one the main key issue for middle group families as they have small saving today are to meet their needs for future expenses. As a conclusion, this research paper study helps to examine that how they manage their savings and expenses, risk facing capacity and other elements which influence their investment decision.
Keywords:Income, Commodity Market, Money Market & Capital Market, Real Estate.

18. Role of Entrepreneurial Activities to Accelerate Socio-Economic Development: A Study on Small Scale Shoe Industry at Bhairab in Bangladesh

Author: Sara Tasneem,(Pages: 139-147)


Bangladesh has been able to achieve socio-economic development during the last few decades. Industrialization is one of the driving forces of development process. Entrepreneurial activities play a crucial role in this regard. The present study highlights the contribution of entrepreneurs to socio-economic development. Conducting field survey and discussion with the entrepreneurs, the study reveals that remarkable socio-economic development has occurred in the study area for the efforts of entrepreneurs. The study recommends social and financial support for entrepreneurs to set up small scale industry in other regions of the country.
Keywords:Entrepreneurial Activities, Socio-Economic Development, Small Scale Shoe Industry, Bhairab (Bangladesh)

19. Inventory Control Policy for Imperfect Production Process on Various Demand and Fuzzy Nature: Latest Trend

Author: Kamal Kumar, Ashok Kumar, and Promila,(Pages: 148-158)


We learn about reviews of some inventory models for imperfect objects with various demands and fuzzy nature. During manufacturing, firstly, there produce a perfect object. We can say that production is an in-control state. But after some time it provides imperfect objects we can say that production change from in-control state to out of control state but there ignored of defective items. If the faulty items reached the customer, there are refunds and due to which extra cost suffered. To protect this, some researchers work on it. For this few of the researchers, take demands the triangular fuzzy number. Shortages are acceptable and partially backlogged. Demand is proportional to time. Production and repair rate are the function of demand, due to which repair rate and production both depend on the time. Some of the researchers take costs in fuzzy nature and the repair process used on imperfect objects. For discovering the imperfect quality, all objectives are screened before they sent for ingesting. All defective objects are peddled at discount prices. The old idea of fuzziness of the fuzzy parameters was the same always, but due to the real-life human experience, the fuzziness activated to eliminate from the system over time. Mostly researcher firstly takes the non- fuzzy model (crisp model) and then fuzzification the model to find the decision. They fuzzification holding cost, shortage cost, and set up the price by the triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to find the overall price. The complete profit function is defuzzify by the graded mean integration method.
Keywords:Inventory, Imperfect, Triangular fuzzy, Trapezoidal, Partially backlogged, Graded mean integration method.

20. Use of Technology by Teacher Trainees in Self-Financed Institutions

Author: Umendra Singh,(Pages: 159-163)


Education is very important for the progress of both the individual and the society. The unique contribution of education lies in making life progressive, cultural and civilized. Use of technology plays an important role for promoting relevant and interesting education. Educational technology implies the use of all modern media, methods and materials for maximizing the learning outcomes. All these methods, media and materials need be utilized in an integrated manner for ensuring optimization of learning. It would be very helpful for teachers in teaching. Now a days there are many institutions for training of elementary and secondary school teachers. But a large number of these institutions suffer from inadequate facilities – human, physical and academic to provide good professional education. Besides improving these facilities, it is necessary to provide modern media, materials and methods for accelerating the teaching-learning process.
Keywords:Technology, Teacher Trainees, Self-financed Institutions.

21. Advertising Strategies and Their Influence and Impact on the Perception and Interactive behavior of Women Consumers

Author: U.C. Sharma, Swati Sharma,(Pages: 164-173)


Advertisement has a very significant role in current era as it decides the attitudes and insights of individuals and society which outstandingly effects the customer buying behavior. In any business success when it attracts and retains the Women Consumers with profit and this goal is achieved when company builds a strong Women Consumer perception for its product or service. All the big guns have made significant attempts to ensure quality advertisement and fabrication of strong Women Consumer perception through suitable ways that positively affects the Women Consumer buying behavior because people get knowledge about product through advertisement and other promotional tools and develop perception through company‘s activities and his previous experience with that company and past purchase accordingly. The purpose of this paper is to cover the gap from the previous literature with regard to the cognitive and the behavioral component of attitude of consumers. The literature was scant in examining the influence of the mostly used traits on the purchase behavior and the switching behavior of consumers. Therefore, this research paper examines the impact of different marketing strategies used by the advertisers on the components of the attitude of the consumers.
Keywords:Advertisement, Buying behavior, Women Consumer, Impact, Attitude.

22. Board Structure and Agency Cost

Author: Shubhi Agarwal and Archana Singh,(Pages: 174-183)


This research paper focuses to examine the role of board structure and corporate governance in eliminating agency cost in a sample of 30 firms selected from National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange during the time period of 2007-19. This study uses return on assets to measure agency cost. This study applies multiple fixed effect of regression to analyze the data. The result findings also conclude that there is a positive impact of small board size, firm size, growth, independent directors and frequent board meetings on return on assets and helps in reducing agency cost but non-independent director does not make any impact and women director makes a negative impact on agency cost.
Keywords:Agency cost, board size, corporate governance, directors and firm structure.

23. Modern Empowerment in the Workplace

Author: Kanika Maheshwari,(Pages: 184-190)


Empowering your employees is a great way to improve employee engagement and retain your top talent. Employers and employees both have unrealistic perceptions about what empowerment is and how it is supposed to work in real-time. Empowerment is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision-making about their job in autonomous, independent, self-directed ways.
Keywords:bestowing, embrace, foster, empowerment, work in real-time, unrealistic perceptions

24. Literature Review and Survey of Inventory Control Policy with Various Demand Parameters

Author: Kamal Kumar, Ashok Kumar, and Meenu,(Pages: 191-199)


Inventory is the stock of goods and items in any business for the basis of sales and future production. The list may remain in the type of raw material, spare parts, and finished goods. Inventory management assists in many gains in the stock. It helps in sustain the list in a suitable quantity and supplying the same at the right timings. The managers of the firm try to develop different inventory policies to increase the profit of the firm. Different type of demands is the key policies from which manager increases the market and hence make the profit for the structure. In this paper, the latest work in the area of inventory control for various applications is presented.
Keywords:Inventory, Increasing demand, Price dependent demand, Stock dependent demand, and Time-dependent demand.

25. Marketing System of Plastic Door in Bangladesh: A Study on Aziz Pipes Limited

Author: Md. Zahir Uddin Arif, Mohammad Amzad Hossain Sarker and Mir Semon Haider,(Pages:200-212)


1. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to analyze the marketing system of plastic door of Aziz Pipes Limited in Bangladesh. 2. Design/methodology/approach: Exploratory research design has been used for the study. The study has collected data from primary and secondary sources. The study has obtained primary data from manufacturers, dealers, developers, architectural firms and individual consumers selected through purposive sampling technique. Opinions of the respondents about marketing system of plastic door have been gathered through face to face interview using separate sets of semi-structured (open-ended and closedended) questionnaires for each category of respondents. However, secondary data have been gathered and analyzed for the study from company annual reports, books, journals, and websites. 3. Findings: The findings of the study indicate about the existing marketing system and channels of distribution used, sources and kinds of raw materials, PVC profile manufacturing process, the pricing policy, opportunity and threat analysis and marketing functions faced by the company. There is a major limitation, especially in promotional efforts. Therefore, the company should take effective measures to create favorable brand image towards markets and attain relatively better performance of this industry following market driven strategy. 4. Practical implications: The study has practical implications for the manufacturers, dealers, developers, architectural firms, individual consumers, investors, policymakers, industry experts and media to discuss and create a sustainable marketing practice for plastic door in Bangladesh. 5. Originality/value: The study will help to originate the value to the manufacturers, dealers, developers, architectural firms and individual consumers of plastic door if the effective and efficient marketing system can be practiced more rigorously for better proliferation of the segmented markets. As a result, marketers can incorporate the convenient marketing mix structure in order to provide an insight for the plastic door industry in Bangladesh to evaluate the effectiveness of their marketing strategies and tactics
Keywords:Channels of distribution, Market information, Marketing mix, Marketing system, Plastic door, PVC profile

26. Reasons for Tourism Destination: A Conceptual Study on Young Generation in Bangladesh

Author: Sabnam Jahan,(Pages: 213-220)


Tourism has been proved as a major income driving industry in many middle income countries. In terms of income, employment opportunities and foreign exchange, tourism industry has contributed positively in Bangladesh. This research work is a conceptual study and dimensions related to social, travel, destination and miscellaneous aspects were considered to identify their influence on destination choices. The study depicted that decisions were generally influenced by aspects relating to safety, economics, infrastructural facilities and environment. The exogenous variables such as political instability and the level of crime rate in each destination are not vital determinants of tourist’s choice of youngsters. Therefore, it can be implied that a uniform strategy for every age group will not be effective. There is a scope for future studies as a part of roadmap development of probable future promotion strategies for tourism in Bangladesh which can be done on customer perception to identify the decision-making path of domestic tourists of different age groups through in-depth research work.
Keywords:Tourism, young generation, Bangladesh, safety, infrastructure, economics.

27. Promoting Agro-Based Industry in India (Issues and Challenges)

Author: Chatar Singh Negi, Sanjay Kumar,(Pages: 221-229)


The development of agro-based industries has the propensity to stabilize and create agriculture acceptable and moneymaking. Given the thrust on doubling farmers financial gain, the govt agencies are enjoying a polar role in promoting agro-based industries across the country through the implementation of varied schemes and policies starting from providing collateral-free credit and access to incubation centers to providing higher instrumentality and employment opportunities for entrepreneurs. Agrobased industries give a competitive advantage, each among and out of doors the country. They absorb surplus rural labor and address the matter of excellent scale unemployment/disguised employment in rural areas. Agro-based industries give promotional/profitable occupation And activity diversification in villages that ensure balanced industrial growth in rural areas. Its time that the policymakers and trade leaders acknowledge agriculture about business as a competitive, value-adding sector and facilitate the event of agri-based industries.
Keywords:Agro-based Industries, Entrepreneur, Employment, Farmers Income, Exports.

28. Budgetary Trends of Uttarakhand Government: An Analysis of Almora District

Author: Shivani Shaha, K.C. Joshi, B.P. Singhal ,(Pages: 230-244 )


COVID-19 has shown us the need to review our budget allocation. Budget Analysis is a tool used to build public accountability and marginalize focus on public expenditure management and budget processes. It aims at influencing the distribution of federal funds and making them transparent. In this paper, budged allocations towards various sectors of a district economy are assessed. Objectives of the study are- 1. To find out the distribution of funds to different areas of the economy 2. To assess deficiency/sufficiency/ over-sufficiency of funds for various heads, particularly in the COVID-19 Pandemic situation. Data for the last four years i.e., 2016-17 to 2019-20, is collected from government departments and other secondary sources for comparative and trend analysis. The study concludes that there is an uneven distribution of funds in the district. Some sectors like Medical and Health are underdeveloped still unable to utilize its funds entirely Other industries like Education and Energy can use their funds yet need an addition in allocation for development In the course of a pandemic it seems that rural development needs an increase in allocation to retain migrants back in the district and populate abandoned villages.
Keywords:COVID-19, Budget Allocation, District Economy, Trend Analysis

29. Study of Consumer Willingness for Buying Apparels through Ecommerce Platforms: A Conjoint Analysis

Author: U.C. Sharma, Mayank Sharma,(Pages:245-254)


E-Commerce has been showing enormous growth in recent past in India, many brick & mortar retailers are also venturing into online portals for sustaining in market. With the rise in mobile users & internet penetration among Indian population, the online business has grown by many folds. The study has employed conjoint analysis to investigate the consumer’s willingness to buy apparels online. In the study, efforts are made in order to understand the preferences of Indian customers towards apparel segment. The buying decision depends upon the number of choices available & the utility which a consumer draws out of each & every available choice. In the study 5 attributes of online shopping are selected namely shopping website, product line, mode of payment, delivery time and promotions. The shopping website attribute has 5 choices, product line has 5 choices, mode of payment has 3 choices, delivery time has 3 choices and promotion has 3 choices. The results indicate that the most important attribute is found to be shopping website and the next most important attribute is found to be delivery time. The mode of payment & product line are equally important & the least important attribute for online buying behavior is promotions.
Keywords:Online shopping orientation, willingness, conjoint analysis, apparel purchase

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